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FracMan7.7_Workbook使用手册

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FracMan 7.7 Workbook FracMan 7.7 Workbook ii Table of Contents EXERCISE 1 – ANALYZING IMAGE LOGS . 1 1.1 Constructing and Validating a Conceptual Model . 1 1.2 Import and Edit Wells 1 1.3 Load the Image Log Data 5 1.4 Identify Zones of Constant Fracture Intensity, i.e. “Mechanical Layers” . 7 1.5 Cumulative Fracture Intensity (CFI) Plots . 8 1.6 Define Well Intervals and Compute Fracture Intensities . 10 1.7 Fracture Orientation 15 1.8 Assess the Variation of Fracture Orientations with Depth 18 1.9 Analyze Fracture Orientations . 23 1.10 Relate Fracture Orientation to Bedding 38 1.11 Analyze the Spatial Pattern of the Image Log . 43 EXERCISE 2 – MODEL VALIDATION 49 2.1 Load the Workspace . 49 2.2 Define P10 Intervals for Well “Golder2” 49 2.3 Load and Reformat the Image Data for “Golder2” 50 2.4 Create the Fracture Generation Region 54 2.5 Define the Fracture Sets . 55 2.6 Generate the Fracture Sets . 60 2.7 Sample the Fracture Network . 61 2.8 Assessing Model Variability 66 2.9 Task Automation through Macros . 67 2.10 Run the Monte Carlo Simulation . 73 EXERCISE 3 – ESTIMATING FRACTURE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS . 75 3.1 Size/Number Scaling Plots 75 3.2 Load the AntTrack Data 77 3.3 Load the Fault Traces . 79 3.4 Compute AntTrack Traces 80 3.5 Fit a Power Law Distribution . 82 FracMan 7.7 Workbook iii 3.6 Estimating Fracture Sizes from Wellbore Intersections 85 3.7 Exercise: Estimating Fracture Sizes from Censoring Statistics 89 EXERCISE 4 – WORKING WITH SEISMIC DATA . 90 4.1 Load the Stratigraphic Horizons 90 4.2 Create the Grid between the Surfaces 92 4.3 Map the Seismic Property to the Grid . 94 EXERCISE 5 – CORRELATING FRACTURE INTENSITY TO SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES . 99 5.1 Open the Previous Workspace . 99 5.2 Visualize Seismic Coherence 99 5.3 Import the Well Data . 99 5.4 Correlate Fracture Intensity to Seismic Coherence 100 5.5 Define and Generate Fracture Sets 102 EXERCISE 6 – ANALYZING FRACTURE CONNECTIVITY 112 6.1 Load the Workspace . 112 6.2 Generate the Fracture Network. 113 6.3 Cluster Analysis. 113 6.4 Analyze Well-Fracture Connectivity 118 6.5 Transmissible Connectivity . 121 EXERCISE 7 – ESTIMATING VOLUMETRIC FRACTURE INTENSITY 127 7.1 Generating Fracture Sets to Match P10 Intensity 127 7.2 Estimating P32 from P10 through Monte Carlo Simulation . 136 EXERCISE 8 – UPSCALING FRACTURE PROPERTIES FOR DYNAMIC SIMULATION . 143 8.1 Open the Workspace and Generate the Fracture Sets 143 8.2 Compute Equivalent Fracture Properties 143 8.3 Equivalent Fracture Porosity . 148 8.4 Shape Factor . 150 8.5 Equivalent Fracture Permeability – Oda’s Method 152 8.6 Dynamic (Flow-Based) Upscaling . 156 8.7 Which Algorithm to Choose? . 162 EXERCISE 9 – SPECIALIZED GEOLOGICAL MODELS 164 9.1 The Fold Model . 164 FracMan 7.7 Workbook iv 9.2 Create the Fold Region . 165 9.3 Define the T Fractures 166 9.4 Generate and Visualize the T Fractures . 169 9.5 Define the S Fractures 170 9.6 Curvature . 170 9.7 The Stress Field Model . 171 9.8 Open a New Workspace and Import the Stress Data . 173 9.9 Define the Fracture Sets . 175 9.10 Generate the Fracture Sets . 178 9.11 Critical Stress Analysis 180 EXERCISE 10 – CREATING FRACTURES FROM TRACE MAPS: APPLICATIONS TO DETERMINING SEALING VS. CONDUCTIVE FAULTS IN THE FIELD . 187 10.1 Create a New Workspace and Load the Trace Map . 187 10.2 Generate the Fracture Set from the Trace Map 188 EXERCISE 11 – STRATIGRAPHIC FRACTURE MODELS 195 11.1 Create a New Workspace and Load the Stratigraphic Horizons 195 11.2 Create a Grid from Surfaces . 196 11.3 Define a Stratigraphic Fracture Set . 197 11.4 Generate the Fractures . 202 11.5 Using a Geocellular Fracture Set for a Stratigraphic Model . 203 EXERCISE 12 – WELL TEST SIMULATION . 223 12.1 Introduction to Well Test Simulation . 223 12.1.1 Create a New Workspace . 223 12.1.2 Insert A Single Horizontal Fracture . 223 12.1.3 Define Fracture Limiting Region and Save Fractures . 224 12.1.4 Create a Well 225 12.1.5 Define the Well Test Parameters 229 12.1.6 Verify that Mesh Refinement is Sufficient . 239 12.2 Introduction to Well Test Simulation . 241 12.2.1 Load the Workspace . 241 12.2.2 Simulate a Test Using the Base Case Parameter Set 241 FracMan 7.7 Workbook v 12.2.3 Simulate the Test Using Different Fracture Permeability 243 12.2.4 Simulate Using Different Fracture Apertures 244 12.2.5 Simulate the Test Using Different Fracture Compressibility . 245 12.3 Using Conceptual Models to Build Complex Flow Geometries 249 12.3.1 Load the Workspace . 249 12.3.2 Simulate a Test Using the Base Case Parameter Set 249 12.3.3 Create an Asymmetric Fracture 250 12.3.4 Create a Channel (Pipe) Fracture . 251 12.3.5 “Sweet Spot” Behaviour 254 12.4 Dual-Porosity Behavior . 257 12.4.1 Open a New Workspace . 257 12.4.2 Generate a Homogeneous Warren and Root - Type Fracture Network . 257 12.4.3 Simulate the First Test without Matrix Interaction . 258 12.4.4 Simulate Dual Porosity Behaviour 260 12.5 Well Test Response Variability in Complex Fracture Networks 267 12.5.1 Generate the Fracture Network 267 12.5.2 Simulate a Well Test . 268 12.5.3 Investigating Network Variability by Moving the Source Well . 273 EXERCISE 13 – HYDRAULIC FRACTURE SIMULATION . 276 13.1 Single Stage Hydraulic Fracture Simulation . 276 13.1.1 Generate the Natural Fracture System . 276 13.1.2 Define the Well Geometry and the Hydraulic Fracturing Stages 277 13.1.3 Defining In-Situ Stress and Elastic Properties 279 13.1.4 Setting up the Hydraulic Fracturing Definitions . 288 13.1.5 Hydraulic Fracture Model, Single Stage, Multiple Perforations 301 13.1.6 Stress and Stiffness Contrast Effects on Hydraulic Fracturing . 304 13.1.7 Updating the Stress Grid . 314 13.2 Hydraulic Fracturing Simulation for Single Well, Multiple Stages . 326 13.2.1 Multiple Stages, No Stress Update . 326 13.2.2 Hydraulic Fracturing Definition Setup for Multiple Stages 328 13.2.3 Updating Stress Grid for a Multiple Stages Scenario . 330 FracMan 7.7 Workbook vi EXERCISE 14 – CALCULATING WELL EUR . 336 14.1 Workflow Overview . 336 14.2 Setting up the Fracture Definitions and Generating the Fracture Network . 336 14.3 Create Filters and Run the Connectivity Analysis . 340 14.4 Marking the Grid 344 14.5 Editing Grid Properties 345 14.6 Calculate the Tributary Drainage Volume . 347 14.7 Defining Values for EUR . 350 14.8 Calculating EUR 351 14.9 Recording a Macro to Calculate 3 Realizations 352 14.10 Generating Realizations 353 14.11 Commentary on Macro 355 14.12 The Monte Carlo Loop in a Macro 357 FracMan 7.7 Workbook 1 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CCDF Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function CFI Cumulative Fracture Intensity DFN Discrete Fracture Network EUR Estimated Ultimate Recovery FMI Formation Microimager Log MD Measured Depth NTG Net-to-Gross P10 Number of fractures per unit length P32 Area of fractures per unit volume of rock mass (volumetric intensity) P33 Volume of fractures per unit volume of rock mass (volumetric porosity) PDF Power Density Function PLT Production Log Tool ppg pounds per gallon PTA Pressure Transient Analysis TDV Tributary Drainage Volume FracMan 7.7 Workbook 2 FRACMAN 7.70 WORKSPACE Note: All windows, with the exception of the 3D visualization window, can be moved around the screen, docked, or placed into tabbed modes. FracMan 7.7 Workbook 1 EXERCISE 1 – ANALYZING IMAGE LOGS Image log data provides valuable information about fracture orientations, sizes and intensities. The number of fracture intersections per unit length (P10 intensity) can be used to estimate the volumetric fracture intensity (P32, P33, or total fracture count) throughout the reservoir. When estimating fracture orientation distributions, image log data is the best (and often the only) data available. Image log data can also show how fracture intensity and orientation relate to other aspects of the reservoir such as bedding orientation and thickness. 1.1 Constructing and Validating a Conceptual Model When building a field-scale fracture model, some important questions to ask are: 1. What distinct fracture sets are present? 2. How do these sets vary around the field? 3. What physical processes have caused these variations? FracMan provides several analysis tools that can help answer these questions. In this example, we will analyze a reservoir in which we believe that fracturing occurred during compression and subsequent folding of the rock from the northeast. Analysis of the wireline logs has identified two distinct horizons: GM-2 at 8,500 ft (~2,590 m) measured depth (MD) along the well, and GM-3 at 13,010 ft (~3,965 m) measured depth along the well. The available data are two well deviation surveys “Golder1.txt” and “Golder2.txt”, an image log interpretation of conductive fractures in one well (“Golder1_frac.LAS”) and an image log interpretation of bedding orientations (“Golder1_bed.LAS”) in the same well. 1.2 Import and Edit Wells It is always best to examine what fracture sets might exist on a well-by-well basis, rather than all the data all at once. To carry out these analyses, we must associate the fracture data from core or image logs with the wells from which it was collected. FracMan allows the user to import well data in several formats. For this exercise, we will use files that are in Schlumberger’s Petrel™ well trace format, as shown below: # WELL TRACE FROM PETREL # WELL NAME: Golder1 # WELL HEAD X-COORDINATE: 1157229.00000000 # WELL HEAD Y-COORDINATE: 1063875.00000000 # WELL KB: 1658.00000000 # WELL TYPE: Oil # MD AND TVD ARE REFERENCED (=0) AT KB AND INCREASE DOWNWARDS # ANGLES ARE GIVEN IN DEGREES #================================================================================================= ===================================== MD X Y Z TVD DX DY AZIM INCL DLS #================================================================================================= ===================================== 35.50000000 1157229.00000000 1063875.00000000 1622.50000000 35.50000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 100.00000000 1157229.04500000 1063874.95500000 1558.00044800 99.99955170 0.04481506 - 0.04495607 135.09000000 0.37000000 0.37554586 125.00000000 1157229.08200000 1063874.91900000 1533.00102800 124.99897220 0.08227634 - 0.08081036 132.53000000 0.41000000 0.20006578 [additional lines omitted] The file fragment shown above contains the standard header information from a deviation file exported by Petrel. FracMan can reconstruct the well from the X, Y, and Z data, the TVD, DX, DY data, or the MD, AZIM, INCL data. It is not necessary to export all three data triplets from Petrel; only one of the above is required. FracMan 7.7 Workbook 2 To import the well surveys: 1. If FracMan is already open, click New . Otherwise, just start up FracMan and choose “New… ” from the menu of options. If the Project Setup Properties dialog box does not automatically display, select Project Setup… from the Tools menu. 2. In the Project Setup Properties dialog box, in the General tab, make sure Permeability, Compressibility and Aperture is selected for the Reserved Properties. Make sure the Length is set to meters (m) on the Units tab. 3. Click OK to save these Project Properties. 4. On the File menu, select Import | Well | Well Data. 5. In the File Open dialog, select Petrel Well Trace as the file type. 6. In the “C:\FracMan_Workshop\Exercise1” directory, CTRL + left click on both “Golder1.txt” and “Golder2.txt”. 7. Click Open. 8. The Data Import dialog will now open, allowing you to check the units of the imported files. These particular wells have their x and y values specified in meters (UTM), and their z-values specified in feet. To convert their z-values to meters, change the Scale Z selection to “0.3048 (Ft to M)” in the Coordinates tab. 9. Repeat the last step for the second Data Import dialog that appears for the second well (unless you checked the Use These Settings For All checkbox in the earlier dialog). 10. Click OK. FracMan 7.7 Workbook 3 The two wells named “Golder1” and “Golder2” will be added to the model. When these wells are initially loaded, the view will be from the top down (“plan” view). To change the view to look at the model from different directions, use the following tools: 1. To view both wells, CTRL+ left click each well in the Objects window and click the Zoom Extents Selected button. 2. While the wells are still selected, view the model directly from the south by clicking on the South button on the toolbar. When the mouse pointer is held over the button, the word “South” will pop up. Click the Zoom Extents Selected button again. There are also corresponding buttons for North, East and West. FracMan 7.7 Workbook 4 3. To center the view around the entire model, click the Zoom Extents button. 4. To zoom in or out, click the Free Zoom button, and then drag the mouse up or down over the Model View window. 5. To rotate the model, click the Free Rotate button, and drag the mouse across the Model View window. 6. To translate the model, click the Free Translate button and drag the mouse across the Model View window. Using these controls, adjust the view so that the wells are viewed from the side. To view the model x, y and z-coordinates: 1. On the View menu, select Model Scale. 2. On the View menu, select the Model Scale again to remove the model scale from the visualization window. To view the measured depths along each well: 1. In the Objects window, CTRL-click on both “Golder1” and “Golder2” if they are not already selected. 2. On the View menu, select Attributes if this window is not already displayed in FracMan. 3. In the Attributes window, check the Show Scale flag, change the Scale Increment to 500, and change the Rig/Label Size to 300, and press the ENTER key. The model should now appear as shown below: To save this workspace: FracMan 7.7 Workbook 5 1. On the File menu, select Save As… 2. In the Save As dialog, name the project file “FracMan1.frd”. 3. Click Save. A completed file named “Exercise 1.frd” has been provided for reference. 1.3 Load the Image Log Data The image log for this example has already been analyzed and separated into two files: conductive fractures (“Golder1_frac.LAS”), and the bedding orientations (“Golder1_bed.LAS”). In order to derive orientation, location, and intensity parameters for our fracture model, we will load this data and associate it with the appropriate well intervals. To load the image log data: On the File menu, select Import | Well | Well Data… In the Import Well Data dialog, select Log ASCII Standard (*.las) as the file type. CTRL-click on both “Golder1_frac.LAS” and “Golder1_bed.LAS”, and click Open. In the Data Import dialog, you can see that the Z-coordinates will be loaded in meters. While the image log files for “Golder1” listed their depths measured in feet (look in the Properties tab of the Data Import dialog), the program has automatically converted the f
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