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厚油层_油帽子_剩余油富集影响因素分析_李林祥

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油层 帽子 剩余 富集 影响 因素 分析 李林祥
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[收稿日期]2014-01-01[作者简介]李林祥(1968-),男,1990年大学毕业,高级工程师,现主要从事油藏开发研究及管理工作。厚油层“油帽子”剩余油富集影响因素分析李林祥(中石化胜利油田分公司孤东采油厂,山东东营257051)[摘要]胜利油田整装油藏由于长期注水形成了次生底水油藏,在油藏顶部剩余油富集,该类剩余油称为“油帽子”。针对胜利油田整装油藏的具体特点,利用正交模拟试验方法对剩余油富集影响因素进行了分析,认为该类剩余油主要受渗透率级差、油层厚度、避射比例和韵律性的影响,影响程度为:渗透率级差>油层厚度>韵律性>避射比例。试验结果表明,渗透率级差越大油层中的“油帽子”现象越明显,水驱采收率越低;油藏厚度越大,油藏顶部剩余油越富集;正韵律油层比反韵律油层在油藏开发中后期更容易形成“油帽子”。[关键词]厚油层;“油帽子”;剩余油;渗透率级差;韵律性;整装油藏[中图分类号]TE327[文献标志码]A[文章编号]1000-9752(2014)07-0130-03胜利油田整装油藏最显著特点一般为三角洲前缘相沉积,油层厚度大,层内夹层少。因此对于厚砂体油藏,由于长期注水形成了次生底水油藏,在顶部有一定的剩余油富集厚度层段,但由于层内无夹层发育,挖潜难度大,该类剩余油称为“油帽子”。“油帽子”是整装油藏剩余油最主要富集模式[1~5],笔者基于数值模拟和数理统计学的理论基础,采用正交试验设计,计算了“油帽子”剩余油富集模式形成的主控影响因素。1正交模拟试验设计表1注采参数优化L9(34)正交表序号A渗透率级差B油层厚度/mC避射比例D韵律性“油帽子”厚度/m1551/3正1.92581/2反2.03510全部均质2.141051/2均质3.45108全部正3.8610101/3反3.97205全部反4.182081/3均质4.7920101/2正5.3表2各因素对“油帽子”厚度影响正交试验结果及极差分析m序号T1T2T3T1T2T3RA611.114.123.674.72.7B9.410.511.33.133.53.770.64C10.510.7103.53.573.330.24D111010.23.663.333.40.33注:Ti为某个因素第i个水平全部试验所测得的试验结果之和;Ti为某个因素第i个水平全部试验所得结果的平均值;R=maxT{}i-minT{}i。如果利用数值模拟的方法进行剩余油富集试验的参数优化,就需要预先设置好需要优化的参数的级别。研究中主要优化参数有4个,分别是渗透率级差、油层厚度、避射比例及韵律性。假设每个参数有3个水平,那么必须进行3×3×3×3=81次试验才能把所有的情况遍历完成,工作量大。而正交试验设计是使用正交表来安排多因素、多水平试验,并采用统计学方法分析试验结果的一种试验设计方法。根据正交试验设计,数值模拟试验方案设计采用L9(34)正交表,只需9套试验方案(表1)。通过正交试验分析,各种因素的影响程度为:渗透率级差>油层厚度>韵律性>避射比例(表2)。·031·石油天然气学报(江汉石油学院学报)2014年7月第36卷第7期JournalofOilandGasTechnology(J.JPI)Jul.2014Vol.36No.72“油帽子”剩余油富集影响因素分析2.1渗透率级差对“油帽子”剩余油富集的影响图1不同渗透率级差条件下剩余储量与采收率关系分别模拟了不同渗透率级差条件下剩余油富集模式,如图1所示。对于均质整装油藏,“油帽子”的形成主要受油水重力分异作用的影响,总体上影响不大,对“油帽子”的形成作用较小。但随着渗透率级差变大,注入水受重力分异及渗透率级差双重影响,当渗透率级差大到一定程度,就会在储层中形成高渗条带,致使油层中的“油帽子”现象越来越明显,水驱采收率越来越低[6~8]。2.2油层厚度对“油帽子”剩余油富图2油藏含水率为98%时油层厚度与剩余油分布关系集的影响油藏厚度越大,水驱越难波及到油藏顶部,因此油层中的“油帽子”现象越明显,顶部剩余油越富集[9~11]。模拟了油层厚度分别为3、5、10m的条件下含水率为98%时剩余油分布(图2)。从图2可以看出,油层厚度对“油帽子”的形成有较大的影响。当油层厚度为3m时,“油帽子”最厚处约为油层厚度的1/5;当油层厚度增加到10m时,“油帽子”最厚处可达油层厚度的1/2。2.3射开程度对“油帽子”剩余油富集的影响某些油藏油层并未完全射孔,存在避射现象,不同的射开程度对“油帽子”的产生影响不明显,均可产生“油帽子”富集模式(图3)。2.4韵律性对“油帽子”剩余油富集的影响油层韵律性对“油帽子”影响见图4,可以看出,在采液速度一致的情况下,开发初期正韵律油层的生产效果好,含水上升慢;但到开发中后期,正韵律油层明显含水上升快,易形成“油帽子”。·131·第36卷第7期李林祥:厚油层“油帽子”剩余油富集影响因素分析图3不同射开程度对剩余油富集模式的影响3结论1)胜利油田整装油藏顶部剩余油富集,并称该类剩余油为“油帽子”,分析认为该类剩余油主要受渗透率级差、油层厚度、避射比例和韵律性的影响,影响程度为:渗透率级差>油层厚度>韵律性>避射比例。2)渗透率级差越大,油层中的“油帽子”现象越明显,水驱采收率越低;油藏厚度越大,油层顶部剩余油越富集;正韵律油层比反韵律油层在油藏开发中后期更容易形成“油帽子”。图4不同韵律油藏含水率变化曲线图[参考文献][1]冯其红,吕爱民,于红军,等.一种用于水驱开发效果评价的新方法[J].石油大学学报(自然科学版),2004,28(2):58~60.[2]陈月明.特高含水期油藏工程研究[J].油气采收率技术,1997,4(4):39~48.[3]ValvatneP,PiriM,LopezX.Predictivepore-Scalemodelingofsin-gleandmultiphaseflow[J].TransportinPorousMedia,2005,58(19):23~41.[4]PatzekTW,SilinDB.Shapefactorandhydraulicconductanceinnoncircu-larcapilariesI.One-phaseCreepingFlow[J].JournalofColoidandIn-terfaceScience,2001,236:295~304.[5]秦河琳,陈易云.冀中地区砂岩油藏厚油层特征及潜力分布形式[J].石油勘探与开发,1995,22(3):76~81.[6]李麦刚,张廷鹏.双河油田高含水期厚层剩余油分布及挖潜[J].河南石油,1996,10(6):20~23.[7]薛国勤,苗润航,陈小瑜.非均质厚油层特高含水期剩余油分布研究[J].河南石油,2000,14(4):21~23.[8]窦之林,曾流芳,张志海.大孔道诊断和描述技术研究[J].石油勘探与开发,2001,28(1):75~77.[9]龙雨丰,范建玲,陈芬.改善高含水期注水开发效果的方法研究[J].内蒙古石油化工,2002,28(3):210~211.[10]李卫彬,王丽英,孙庆萍.特高含水期厚油层细分挖潜方法研究[J].大庆石油地质与开发,2005,24(1):58~60.[11]耿站立,姜汉桥,周崇科,等.特高含水油藏复杂韵律层重组模式研究[J].石油天然气学报(江汉石油学院学报),2006,28(6):102~106.[编辑]帅群·231·石油天然气工程2014年7月dentifiedbyusinginjection-productioneffectanalysis,waterabsorptionprofileanalysis,traceranalysisandmulti-factorcomprehensiveindexidentification.Thedistributionpatternsofpreferenceseepagechannelandremainingoildistributionwerealsosummarized.Theresultprovidestechnicalsupportfortappingthepotentialofresidualoilandimprovingdevelopmentresultsinmeandering-riverreser-voirs,andalsoprovidesreferenceforresearchingthepreferenceseepagechannelinothersimilarreservoirs.Keywords:meandering-riverreservoir;preferenceseepagechannel;remainingoil;comprehensiveindexidentification122ModelforPredictingProductionofSealedBoundaryHorizontalWelafterFracturingGUODali,GUOYulong,CHENXiang,KEXijun,TAOBo(FirstAuthorsAddress:SchoolofSciences,SouthwestPe-troleumUniversity,Chengdu610500,Sichuan,China)Abstract:Duetotherestrictionoffracturingtechniquesandcomplexformation,thefracturesofhorizontalwelsweredifferentinlengthandazimuthetc,thesefactorsincreasedthedifficultyofproductionprediction.Onthebasisofclassicpercolationmodelandtheapplicationofdimensionlesstreatmenttechnology,complexpotentialtheory,amodelwasestablishedforpredictingproductioninthesealedboundaryformationwherefracturesinterferedwitheachotherandarelatednumericalmethodwaspresented.Asoftwarewasdevelopedforpredictingproductionafterfracturinginthehorizontalwels.Theerrorsbetweenpredictionvaluesandrealvaluesarewithin20%.Theapplicationdemonstratesthatthemodelandthesoftwarearereliable.Keywords:horizontalwel;hydraulicfracturing;sealedboundary;productivityprediction126APLSR(PartialLeastSquaresRegression)-basedMethodforFastEvaluatingProductivityWANGPeishan,ZHAOLiqiang,LUOZhifeng,LINianyin,ZENGXiangyu,KEJianxing(FirstAuthorsAddress:StateKeyLaboratoryofOilandGasReservoirGeologyandExploitation,SouthwestPetroleumUniversity,Chengdu610500,Sichuan,China)Abstract:Itwashardtoeffectivelyevaluatetheproductivityofreservoirswithultrahighpressureandstrongheterogeneity.DataminingtechnologywasintroducedtodirectlyanalyzethefielddataandaPLSR-basedmethodwasproposedtofastevaluatetheproductivi-ty.Themethodhaduniqueadvantagesofdealingwithmulti-correlationproblemandtreatmentofsmalsamplewels,whichwasquitesuitablefordirectprocessofsmalamountofdataintheearlyperiodofproduction.Bytakinganacid-fracturingwelinthereservoirwithultrahighpressurefracturesinwestChinaforexample,amultiplelinearregressionmodelwasestablishedforproductivitypredic-tioninacidizingprocess,andthemaincontrolingfactorswerescreenedoutthroughtheanalysisofvariableprojectionimpor-tance.Resultsshowthattheproposedmethodhashighaccuracyandeasyoperation.Keywords:reservoirwithultrahighpressure;productivityevaluation;partialleastsquaresregression;analysisofvariableprojectionimportance;acid-fracturing130TheAnalysisofInfluentialFactorsof“OilCap”ofRemainingOilinThickLayerofShengliOilfieldLILinxiang(AuthorsAddress:ShengliOilProductionPlant,ShengliOilfieldCompany,SINOPEC,Dongying257051,Shandong,China)Abstract:BecauseofthelongterminjectionintheuncompartmentalizedreservoirsofShengtuoOilfield,thesecondarybottomwaterreservoirwasformed,remainingoilwasenrichedonthetopofreservoir,anditwasnamed“remainingoilcap”.InconsiderationofthecharacteristicsoftheuncompartmentalizedreservoirsinShengliOilfield,theorthogonalsimulationexperimentalmethodwasusedtoanalyzetheaffectfactorsoftheremainingoil,itwasindicatedthattheremainingoil,perforationextentandtherhythmicityofreser-voir,andtheinfluentialextentwerepermeabilitydifference>reservoirthickness>perforationthickness>therhythmicityofreser-voir.Thetestresultshowsthatthebiggerthepermeabilitydifferenceis,andthemoreobvioustheremaining-oilcapis,andthelowertherecoveryefficiencyofwaterfloodingis,thebiggerthereservoirthicknessisandthemoreenrichmentofremainingoilisonthetopofthereservoir.Thepositiverhythmlayerismoreeasilytoformthe“remaining-oilcap”thantheinvertedrhythmlayeratthemidandlatestagesofreservoirdevelopment.Keywords:thickreservoir;remaining-oilcap;remainingoil;permeability;rhythmicity133TheResearchofWelRe-infilforUltra-lowPermeabilityReservoirinAnsaiOilfieldANMingsheng,CHENQihe,LIUChao,ZHANGTianjie,ZHANGBin(FirstAuthorsAddress:DepartmentofOilfieldDevelopment,ChangqingOilfieldCompany,PetroChina,Xian710021,Shaanxi,China)Abstract:Welpatterninfilingwasthemostdirectandeffectivemethodforproducingresidualoilandenhancingoilrecovery.Onthebasisoffulfilmentoffirst-infilinlowpermeabilityreservoirs,re-infilwelpatternsinAnsaiOilfieldwasstudied,Itwasveryimpor-tantforimprovingdevelopmenteffectandmaintaininglongstableproductionatthemiddleandlatestagesofoilfielddevelopment.ThefracturedevelopmentcharacteristicsandtheimplementationeffectofbasicwelpatternandthefirstinfilwelpatterninChang6reser-voirwereanalyzed,itwasproposedthatfracture-networkmatchingwasthekeyfordeterminingwelinfileffect.Theresultindicatesthatinwelpatternre-infil,welspacingreductionisusedtoturnawaterinjectionpatternofsmalrowandspacingfromoriginalbasicwelpattern.Keywords:fracture;ultra-lowpermeability;fracture;first-infilwel;re-infilwel;welpattern137ApplicationStudyonThermo-chemistry-assistedSteamSoakingofSuper-heavyOilinChunguangOil-field.LUOQuanmin,WANGRuohao,FANGShu,ZHANGQingjun,LIUZisheng,HUANGHonglin,YUANGuangxi(FirstAuthorsAddress:XinjiangExplorationandDevelopmentCenter,HenanOilfieldCompany,SINOPEC,Yanqi841100,Xin-jiang,China)Abstract:Theproblemsoftechnologicbottleneckofmiddle-deepthinreservoirofsuper-heavyoildevelopmentinChunguangOilfieldwereAnalyzed,thetechnologiesinviscosityreductionandnitrogencleanupwereresearchedandapplied.Thechangerulesofoilvis-cosityandwatercontentwereanalyzed,aviscosityreducerandprocessparameterswereoptimized.Afterfieldapplication,dailyoilproduction、cyclicoilproductionandoil-gasratioareobviouslyraisedandtheweloccurrenceisobviouslyimproved.Keywords:Super-heavyoil;thermo-chemistry-assistedsteamsoak;chemicalviscosityreduction;ChunguangOilfield140OptimizedDesignofIsobaricPressure-dropContinuousGasLiftLIJunliang,LIAORuiquan,GUOXin(FirstAuthorsAddress:SchoolofPetroleumEngineering,YangtzeUniversity,Wu-han430100,Hubei,China)Abstract:Theisobaricpressure-dropgasliftdesignwasanessentialmethodofcontinuousgasliftdesign.Inanoilwelproductionsys-tem,theliquidproductionratewasconservative.Sounloadingvalvedistribution,gasinjectiondepthandgasinjectionpressureshouldmeettheneedsofbalanceofthesysteminproductionprocess.Baseonthetheory,amoreadvisabledesignplanwasdeveloped.AmoreⅦ
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