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SPE-64649-MS

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SPE 64649 MS
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Copyright2000,SocietyofPetroleumEngineersInc.ThispaperwaspreparedforpresentationattheSPEInternationalOilandGasConferenceandExhibitioninChinaheldinBeijing,China,7–10November2000.ThispaperwasselectedforpresentationbyanSPEProgramCommitteefollowingreviewofinformationcontainedinanabstractsubmittedbytheauthor(s).Contentsofthepaper,aspresented,havenotbeenreviewedbytheSocietyofPetroleumEngineersandaresubjecttocorrectionbytheauthor(s).Thematerial,aspresented,doesnotnecessarilyreflectanypositionoftheSocietyofPetroleumEngineers,itsofficers,ormembers.PaperspresentedatSPEmeetingsaresubjecttopublicationreviewbyEditorialCommitteesoftheSocietyofPetroleumEngineers.Electronicreproduction,distribution,orstorageofanypartofthispaperforcommercialpurposeswithoutthewrittenconsentoftheSocietyofPetroleumEngineersisprohibited.Permissiontoreproduceinprintisrestrictedtoanabstractofnotmorethan300words;illustrationsmaynotbecopied.Theabstractmustcontainconspicuousacknowledgmentofwhereandbywhomthepaperwaspresented.WriteLibrarian,SPE,P.O.Box833836,Richardson,TX75083-3836,U.S.A.,fax01-972-952-9435.AbstractThecausesofremainingoilincomplexminiaturefaultblockreservoirareverycomplicated.Onthebasisofanalysisofremainingoildeterminationtechniqueathomeandabroad,thispaperpresented14determinationmethodsin6categoriesandformedthetechniquecomplextodeterminateremainingoilforfavorableoilbearingstructureanddevelopedreservoirbycombiningthedynamicandstaticcharacteristics,macroandmicroscales,resolvedthedifficultproblemofinterpretationandtransversepredictionofinternalmicro-faultincomplexfracturezone,coningbodyinstronglywaterfloodedmicro-reservoir,lateraldrillingincasingpipewithslimholeandmulti-targetinasinglewell.Thispaperalsodeterminatetheremainingoildistributionin8reservoirsincludingYaotan,Caoshe,Xi’nanzhuangetc.AftertestinginYaotanandXi’nanzhuangreservoir,23.34t/dand21.32t/doilrateareobtainedinassignedremainingoilareaandinstronglywaterfloodedmemberonesectionofDainanformationinCaosheoilfield.ByusingCO2huffandpuff,waterproductionwasreducedandoilincreased.BasicCharacteristicsofComplexMiniatureFaultBlockReservoirandRemainingOilDistribution1.BasicCharacteristicsofComplexMiniatureFaultBlockReservoir.Basiccharacteristicsofcomplexminiaturefaultblockre-servoirofDainanformationandfirstmembersectionofSan-duoformationinSubeibasinaresmall,faulted,diversifiedandactive.Small—smalloilfieldwithoilbearingarea0.01—0.4km2andlessthan1.0%106tOOIP,smallclosure,usually5—30m;Faulted—abundantdifferentgradecrisscrossfaultsdividedthereservoirtomanyblocksandtheoil-waterrelationshipisverycomplicated,asmallfaultwith10-15mfaultthrowcandiffertheoil-bearingconditionsgreatly;Diversified—affectedbycontinentalfaciessedimentwiththefeaturesofmultipleandproximaldeposit,miniandshortcurrent,quicklychangedfacies.addnarrowfacieszone,diversifiedreservoirbedandtransverseoilbearingpropertiesaregreatly;Active—activeaquiferorbottomwaterleadstoconingorfingeringquicklyindevelopmentandlowrecoverypercentandhighwaterfloodedgrade.2.BasicCharacteristicsofRemainingOilDistributionTheremainingoilistheoilrecoverableundercurrenttechniqueconditionsbutremainsundergroundduetounsuitabledevelopmentpatternandstrategyorplan.Itsdistributioniscontrolledbyreservoirproperty,poolformingconditions,exploitpatternetc.Accordingtothecharacteristicsofcomplexminiaturefaultblockreservoir,frommacroandmicroscale,theplaneandsectionalremainingoildistributionfeaturesinmemberonesectionofDainanformationandSanduoformationarestudied.(1)SectionalDistributionFeaturesofRemainingOil{RemainingoildistributionfeaturesindifferentrhythmBeddingsBecauseofthepermeabilityofunderlyingzonesismuchhigherinnormalrhythmbeddings,injectedwater(ornaturalwater)advancesalongandfloodsthispartfirstly,leavingremainingoilinthetopzones.Topzones’permeabilityismuchhigherinreverserhythmbeddings,soadvancementofinjectedwater(ornaturalwater)isfasterthandownwardflowingandtheremainingoilisleftinunderlyingzones.|Remainingoildistributioncharacteristicsofmultipleandthinzones.Interferencebetweenlayersleadstounequilibriumofreservesputtouse,remainingoilismainlyleftinlowpermeabilityorpollutedlayersorlowerpartofbandbetweeninjectionwellandproductionwell.}RemainingoildistributioncharacteristicsofheterosphereSectionalwateroutbehaviorsareaffectedbyheterogeneitybetweenorinternallayers.Thehigherheterogeneity,themoreseverityoffingering.RemainingoilmainlyisleftinthelowSPE64649TheComprehensiveDeterminationTechniqueandApplicationofRemainingOilinComplexMiniatureFaultBlockReservoirWeiLiu,LiqinZhouandShenWang,GaoYang,SPC.SINOPEC.2WEILIU,LIQINZHOU,SHENWANG,GAOYANGSPE64649permeabilitylayersbypastbywaterorintoppartofhighpermabilitylayers.(2)PlaneDistributionFeaturesofRemainingOil~Controlledbythesandbodydistributionandheterogeneity,theremainingoilisleftinlowerpermeabilitylayersunregularlyorinlenticularsandbodyunaffectedbypattern.Deadoilareasduetouncompletedpatternorfingeringofinjectedwaterareremainingoilareas.RemainingOilDeterminationTechniqueComplexThespecialcausesmakeitmuchmoredifficulttodeterminearemainingoilareathantodiscoveranewreservoir.Uptonow,therearenodirectbutindirectmethodstodeterminatearemainingoilareaathomeandabroad1.Afteranalysisofthesemethods,theauthorpresented14methodsin6categories,including3Dseismics,Kringtransverseprediction,microfaciesanalysis,reservoirnumericsimulation,typeAdisplacementcurve,interferencewelltest,floodingefficiency,sweepvolumeofnaturalwater,dimensionlessproductionindex,materialbalanceequation,C/Ologging,SPcurvedrift,checkingwellandmicrofloodingmechanisminporousstructureetc2.ButtheconditionsinSubeiBasinaresocomplicatedthatasinglemethodcannotsolveitperfectly.Relyingonasinglefactorcanleadtounilateralevenparadoxicalresultsduetorespectivelimitation,acomplextechniquecombiningdynamicandstaticanalysisandfrommacroandmicroscaleisneededtoovercomethelimitationofsinglefactordetermination.Thispaperexploitedtwoseriestechniquecomplexsuitableforcomplexminiaturefaultblockreservoir.1.RemainingOilDeterminationTechniqueComplexforFavorableOilBearingStructureThiskindofreservoirhascomplexfaultsystemwithsmallandbrokenfaultblocks,incompletepattern,andlowrecoverypercentandisshortofperformancedata.Thecomplexincludesreservoirdescription,kringtransversepredictionandmicrofaciesstudy.Thispaperusehighresolutiondrillingandloggingdatatopredicttransverselithologyandfaultanduse3Dseismicsonestepmigration,DMOprocessing,variable–velocityspacecorrectionandlayervelocitycorrectiontotoneupSNRandresolutionandtheseismiclayerdeterminingandtransversescomparisonincomplicatedfracturezone,avoidtheinfluenceoffaultwaveandotherdisturbingwavesonthespaceassemblageoffaultsandtherestoringofstructurehigh.Thecombiningofgeologicalresearchand3Dseismicsstructureinterpretationcanresolvedthedifficulttechniqueproblemssuchasthe10-15mthickthinlayerinterpretationandthetransversepredictionof5-10mlowreliefsandbodyinthecomplexminiaturefaultblockreservoir.2.RemainingOilDeterminationTechniqueComplexforDevelopedReservoirThiskindofreservoirhasrelativelycompletepattern,highrecoverypercent,highfloodinggradeandabundantperformancedata.Thetechniquecomplexincludesreservoirdescriptionreservoirsimulation,performanceanalysis,loggingdistinguishtechnique,checkingwell,observationwellandremainingoilcompound&propertyanalysis,mechanismoffloodinginporousmediumstudy,especiallythesimulation,performanceanalysisandloggingdistinguishtechnique.Onthebasisofreservoirdescription,builtupcomplex3Dgeologymodelofreservoir,usingabundantstaticandperformancedataandtakingsimulationaskerneltechnique,throughhistorymatch,rebuiltoilsaturationchangesintimeandspacescaletoshowtheremainingoildistribution,takingthewatersweepingvolumecalculation,typeAdisplacementcurve,interferencewelltest,C/Owelltest,sweepingefficiencyandremainingoilsaturationcalculationasassistantmethod,buildup,correlateandsynthesizetheresultsofthesemethodstogetthewaterinvasionchannel,watersweepingvolumeanddistinguishtheremainingoildistribution.Onthebasisofestablishedwaterinfluxmodeandcalculatedwaterinfluxvolumeandmaterialbalanceandtheoryofflowinporousmedium,relationshipofquantificationalconingvolumeextentwitheffectivethicknessandperforatedextentisobtainedandtheconingareaandremainingoilareaaredetermined,therebytheproblemofquantificationaldescriptionofconingvolumeinstronglywaterfloodedreservoircanberesolved.ComprehensiveDeterminationComplexandApplicationtoTypicalReservoirInthispaper,onthebasisofgeologycharacteristicsstudy,differenttechniquecomplexesareappliedtostudyEd,EsofYaotan,Caoshe,Xi’nanzhuang,Jiaodunzi,Taosizhuang,Cujialou,Tuowei,Zhouchengoilfieldstogetthecausesandthedistributionofremainingoil;expertdiagnosesandfuzzymathematicssystemareusedtosort8oilfieldsbycomparingtheaffectingfactorssuchasgeologycharacteristics,remainingreserves,drillingconditions,difficultyoflateraldrilling,profitpredictionandunpredictablefactors.ThetestdrillinginNo.1(Yaotanoilfield),No.2(Zhouchengoilfield),No.3(Jiaodunzioilfield),No.5(Taosizhuangoilfield),No.6(Xi’nanzhuangoilfield)aresuccessful.Inthispaper,theYaotanoilfield,CaosheoilfieldandXi’nanzhuangoilfieldaretakenasexamplestointroducethedifferenttechniquecomplexandachievements.1.Ed1ReservoirofYaotanOilfield(1)GeologyCharacteristicsandPresentConditionYaotanoilfieldislocatedinShigangfaultzoneofJinhudepressinSubeibasinandisacomplicatedfaultednoselikestructure.Onthe0.17km2oilbearingarea,3faultswith5-15mfaultthrowaredeveloped.Poorqualityof3Dseismicsdataandtheseverelyinfluenceoffaultwaveandinterferencewavemakeitdifficulttodetermineandcomparelayers,assemblefaultsandrestorestructurehighpoint;Theundulatingmagnitudeofbearingbedislessthan15mandisgreatlychangedattransversedirection.Thereservoirhasveryactivebottomwaterandabundantnaturalenergy,dividedbyaquiferandbottomwaterandbelongstounsaturatedtypereservoir.ThereservoirwasputintoTHECOMPREHENSIVEDETERMINATIONTECHNIQUEANDAPPLICATIONOFREMAININGSPE64649OILINCOMPLEXMINIATUREFAULTBLOCKRESERVOIR3productionin1981withproductionregimeofnaturalwaterfloodingandinterimartificialleft.Atpresent,thereareoneproductionwellandoneclosedinwell.Thepatternisincompleteandlayersarenotseparated.Provedreservesare170%103t.Bytheendof1999,11,443.19toilhasbeenproducedandtherecoverypercentis6.73%.(2)RemainingOilStudyCauseofremainingoil:complicatedfaultsystem,smallandbrokenfaultblock,andincompletepattern.Techniquedifficulty:microfaultwithfaultthrowlessthan10m,distinguishofdifferentialundulatingsandbodymonocline(55%).BytheendofMay2000,6787tadditionaloilwasobtainedwiththerateof8.25t/duptonow.ConcludingRemarks1.Geologyconditionsofminiaturefaultblockreservoirareverycomplicatedandit’sdifficulttointerpretmicro-faultliesincomplexfaultzoneandtopredicttransverselithologyoflowreliefsandbodyandit’sequallydifficulttoobtainquantitativedescriptionofconningbodyinstronglyfloodedmicroreservoirandthedesignofsmallsizelateraldrillingincasingpipewithmulti-targettotapremainingoil.2.14methodsin6categoriessuitableforminiaturecomplexfaultblockreservoirarestudied.Frommacroandmicroscale,combiningperformanceandstaticanalysisandfurthermore,twotechniquecomplexaimingatfavorableoilbearingstruc-tureanddevelopedreservoirareexploited.3.Usingtwotechniquecomplexes,thecauseanddistribu-tionofremainingoilinYaotan,Caoshe,Xi’nanzhuang,Cujia-lou,Jiaodunzi,Taosizhuang,TuoweiandZhouchengoilfieldsarestudied.LateraldrillingwithslimholeincasingpipeinEd1reservoirofYaotanoilfieldandremainingoilareainEs1reser-voirofXi’nanzhuangoilfieldobtainedoilrate23.34t/dand21.32t/dandadditionaloil16736t;CO2huffandpuffinCao-sheoilfieldshowstheexistenceofremainingoilandobtainedadditionaloil1271t.Furthermore,theadjustmentwellsinNo.2(Zhoucheng),No.3(Jiaodunzi)andNo.4(Taosi-zhuang)areallsuccessfulandrevealed5.8—20mremainingoillayersNomenclatureQo---cumulativeoilvolume,m3Qw--cumulativewatervolume,m3a,b—constant,fSor—residualoilsaturation,fR—recoverypercent,fN—performancereserves,103tA1—interceptoftypeAwaterfloodingcurve,fB—slopeoftypeAwaterfloodingcurve,ffw—waterratio,fReference1.QitaiYu:“DiscussionaboutRemainingOil”,PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,vol.2(1997).2.WeiLiu,etc.:“TheStudyofTechniqueofLookingforRemainingOil.”CorpusofCNSPC,GeologicalPublishingHouse.(Nov.1999)518—524.3.ExploitationDepartmentofPetroleumMinistry:“Instan-cesofExploitationinChina”,PetroleumIndustryPress,(1989).4.Xuecheng,etc.:“SimpleRemainingOilDeterminationMethods”.WellTestingandProductionTechnology,vol.1(1996).5.ShenWang:“StudyofRemainingOilDistributioninEd1ReservoirinMiddleFaultofCSOilfield”.JournalofMineralogyandPetrology,vol.3(1998).6.YuchengWangetc.:“StudyofRemainingOilDistribu-tioninLReservoirinLaojunmiaoOilfield,”.PetroleumEx-plorationandDevelopment,vol.2(1991).7.DongDongetc.:“TypeandDistributionofRemainingOilinRiverFaciesOilBearingBedding”.Oil&GasRecoveryTechnology,vol.3(1999).8.ZhaoxinLang:“BasicReservoirEngineering”.UniversityofPetroleumPress,(1991).6WEILIU,LIQINZHOU,SHENWANG,GAOYANGSPE646499.JialiGe:“DynamicofOil&GasthroughPorousMedia”.PetroleumIndustryPress,(1982).10.WeiningLiu:“BasicDynamicofOil&GasthroughPorousMedia”.PetroleumIndustryPress,(1985).11.WeiLiuetc.:“CharacteristicsofConningBodyandRemainingOilDistributioninXi’nanzhuangOilfield”.Oil&GasRecoveryTechnology,vol.3(1998).Table1COMPARSIONOFWATEROUTLEVELS130S158C3C4A2.21495.24424.9620O.3932B3.57652.16682.21090.6067b/a1.61470.41320.44561.543Table.2RESULTOFREMAININGOILSATURATIONINEd1RESERVOIROFCAOSHEOILFIELDWellfw(%)Soi(%)A1Sor(%)S13090.1360.15-0.619347.48C485.7158.42-0.648147.31S15895.0966.37-2.420234.20C388.0158.44-2.244233.56Table3DRAINAGERADIUSOFEd1RESERVOIROFCAOSHEOILFIELDbeforeQK30BproductionbeforeDec.31,1999wellwaterproduced%103toilproduced%103tradiusbywelltestmwaterproduced%103toilproduced%103tradiusbywelltestmRadiusbywelltestmS130150.36963.817101.2204.370.808106.3S15885.55376.20674.1288.276.27774.15441C378.69069.99276.66112.573.54978.58135C418.3545.89831.7023.96.71233.82QK30B34.9737.61735.49total332.966215.913463.873234.518*Partofparametersintablewereselectedfromreservescalculation.Table4FEATURESOFCONNINGBODYOFXI’NANZHUANGOILFIELD*netthickness(H)nullperforatedthickness(h).Fig.13-DTectonicmodelmapofEd1Reservoir,YaotanoilfieldFig.2Watersaturationdistributionoflayer-24ofEd1reservoir,YaotanoilfieldwellundergroundwaterconningvolumeV(m3)oilbearingvolumeVnull(m3)originaldrainageradiusR(m)conningheightY(m)netthicknessH(m)netthicknessimperforated(H-h)*(m)S1904964214040467.510.9310.37.3S2021985486242108.96.569.55.5S2042356271747133.55.805.94.4S2062214132638110.70.8116.113.2S207B152368069585.28.2114.512.9THECOMPREHENSIVEDETERMINATIONTECHNIQUEANDAPPLICATIONOFREMAININGSPE64649OILINCOMPLEXMINIATUREFAULTBLOCKRESERVOIR7Fig.33-DModeloflateraldrillingtrackinS205BFig.43-DtectonicmodelmapofEd1reservoirCaosheoilfiedFig.5WatersaturationdistributionofEd1reservoirCaosheoilfieldFig.6WaterfloodingmodelofEd1reservoirCaosheoilfieldFig.7TectonicmapofEs1reservoirXi’nanzhuangoilfield1-Sweptradiusofsinglewell,2-Waterconeheight,3-Perforatedinterval;4-Remainingdistributionarea,5-Oilcolumnheight.Fig.8ConningmodelofXi’nanzhuangoilfield8WEILIU,LIQINZHOU,SHENWANG,GAOYANGSPE64649Fig.9WatersaturetiondistributionofXi’
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