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RESEARCHPAPERPETROLEUMEXPLORATIONANDDEVELOPMENTVolume43,Issue3,June2016OnlineEnglisheditionoftheChineselanguagejournalCitethisarticleas:PETROL.EXPLOR.DEVELOP.,2016,43(3):474–483.Receiveddate:23Jun.2015;Reviseddate:25Mar.2016.*Correspondingauthor.E-mail:zhaolun@cnpcint.comFoundationitem:SupportedbythePetroChinaScienceandTechnologyMajorProject(2011E-2506).Copyright©2016,ResearchInstituteofPetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,PetroChina.PublishedbyElsevierBV.Allrightsreserved.Relationshipbetweensandstonearchitectureandremainingoildistributionpattern:AcaseoftheKumkolSouthoilfieldinSouthTurgayBasin,KazakstanZHAOLun1,*,LIANGHongwei1,ZHANGXiangzhong1,CHENLi1,WANGJincai1,CAOHaili1,SONGXiaowei21.PetroChinaResearchInstituteofPetroleumExploration2.CNODC,CNPC,Beijing100034,ChinaAbstract:TakingtheKumkolSouthoilfieldinSouthTurgayBasin,Kazakstanasanexample,thisarticlesummarizesthecontrollingpatternofdifferenttypesofsandstonearchitectureonremainingoildistributionthroughexaminingarchitecturecharacteristics,develop-menteffectandremainingoildistributioncharacteristicsofmeanderingriversandstone,braidedriversandstoneanddeltasandstone.Thebraidedriversandstonehassimplearchitecturewhichisextensiveconnectingbodywithhorizontalmud-interlayers.Thewaterfloodingsweepsevenlyandtheedge-bottomwaterdrivesquicklyinbraidriversandstone.Andtheremainingoildistributionpatternofbraidriversandstoneistheverticalblockingpatterncontrolledbythehorizontalmud-interlayersatthehighwatercutstage.Themeanderingriversandstoneisahalfconnectingbodywithabandonedchannelsandthelateralaccretionmud-interlayers,sotheinjectedwatersweepsthroughthemiddleandlowerpartsofpointbarsandstone,anditsremainingoildistributionpatternisthehorizontalblockingpatterncontrolledbyabandonedchannelsandthelateralaccretionmud-interlayers.Thedeltasandstonehasacomplexarchitectureofmosaicstructurewithabundanthorizontalandverticalmud-interlayersandmud-interbeds,inwhichtheinjectedwatersweepsalongpreferentialpath,withlowsweepingefficiency,andtheremainingoildistributionpatternisthecomplexblockingpatterncontrolledbyhorizontalandverticalmud-interlayersandmud-interbeds.Theresultsshowthatdifferenttechniquesshouldbeusedtoenhancetheremainingoilre-coverybecauseofthedifferentremainingoildistributionpatternsindifferentkindofsandbodies.Keywords:deltasandbody;meanderingriversandbody;braidedriversandbody;sandstonearchitecture;waterfloodingdevelopmenteffect;remainingoildistribution;remainingoildevelopment;SouthTurgayBasinIntroductionSandbodyarchitectureisoneofthekeyfactorsdeterminingtheremainingoildistribution.Theremainingoildistributioninsandstonereservoirsbecomesmorecomplexinhighwa-tercutdevelopmentstage,soremainingoilcontrolledbyres-ervoirsandbodyarchitectureisbecomingthemajoraiminoilfielddevelopmentadjustment[1].Meandering-riversand-body,braided-riversandbodyanddeltasandbody,themainreservoirtypesincontinentalhydrocarbonbasins,arediffer-entininter-sandbodycontactandinterlayerdistributionpat-terninsidesandbodybecauseoftheirdifferencesinriverloadcapacity,sedimenttransportanddeposition,hydrodynamicenergyofdepositionenvironment,whichaffectwaterfloodingperformanceandremainingoildistributionpatternofsand-stonereservoirsathighwatercutstagedirectly[23].TakingKumkolSouthOilfieldinSouthTurgaiBasinofKazakhstanasanexample,thisstudyanalyzesgenesisofmeandering-riversandbody,braided-riversandbodyanddeltasandbody,andcomparestheirsandbodyarchitectureandwa-terfloodingperformance,andestablishestheremainingoildistributionpatternsindifferentsandbodyarchitecturesbasedonthefine3-Dreservoirarchitecturemodelandreservoirnumericalsimulation[4],toprovideguidanceforfinereservoircharacterizationandremainingoilrecoveryindifferenttypesofoilfields.1.OverviewofthestudyareaLocatedatAksaySalientintheAryskumDepressionofSouthTurgaiBasin,Kazakhstan,KumkolSouthisalarge-scaleanticlinesandstonereservoirwithbottom-edgewater[56].KumkolSouthOilfieldhasmultiplesetsofreservoirs:theUpperJurassicJ-I-J-IVaredeltafrontdeposits(Fig.1a)ofsiltstoneandfinepowdersandstone,withanaverageporosityZHAOLunetal./PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,2016,43(3):474–483475Fig.1.Planesedimentarymicrofaciesofdifferentstrata.of22%25%andaveragepermeabilityof(273720)×103μm2;theM-IIinthelowerpartoftheLowerCretaceousisbraided-riverdeposits(Fig.1b)ofmedium-coarsesandstone,coarsesandstoneandconglomerate,withanaverageporosityof28%andaveragepermeabilityof813×103μm2;andtheM-IintheupperpartoftheLowerCretaceousismeander-ing-riverdeposits(Fig.1c)ofsiltstone,finesandstoneandmedium-finesandstone,withanaverageporosityof26%andaveragepermeabilityof745×103μm2.Withseparate-layerwaterfloodingcommencedin1990,theoilfieldhasanoriginaloilinplace(OOIP)recoverydegreeof53.3%andcompositewater-cutof97.2%atpresent.2.Sandbodyarchitectureandgenesis2.1.ArchitectureandgenesisofdeltasandbodyTheJ-I—J-IVdepositedinlateJurassicriftbasindeposi-tionalperiodarelargedeltadepositsinshallowwater,andthestudiedareaisidentifiedasdeltafrontsub-facies,whereduetotheeffectofaccommodationspaceandprovenance,thesandbodyischaracterizedbygradualincreaseofA/Sandwa-terdepth,andconversionfrommeanderingtostraightdis-tributarychannel.Meanwhile,withtheincreaseofthehydro-dynamicenergyoflake,thereconstructionoflakewatertodistributarychannelsandbodygraduallyincreased,causingthecreationofthinsheetsandstoneinbetweenunderwaterdistributarychannels.Therearefewmouth-barsduetorela-tivelysmallslopeoflakebasinandpoorunloadingdepositionofthechannels.Theriverdowncuttingeffectgreatlyde-creasesafterflowingintolakeduetotheeffectoflakehy-drodynamicenergy,whichresultsinverticalsuperpositionandlateralintersectionofdifferentstagechannels,within-ter-sandbodymudstoneinterbedsandlateralmudstone/muddybarriersbetweensandbodieswellpreserved.Lateralaccretion,centricandhorizontalmuddyinterlayersdevelopedinsidethesandbodiesduringtheshiftofdistributarychannels,thescale,dip,distributionfrequencyanddensityofmuddyinterlayersZHAOLunetal./PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,2016,43(3):474–483476graduallyincrease[78].Thesandstoneandmudstoneindeltafrontappearinaninlayingstructurewithwell-developedmudstonebarriersof112minthickness,1005000minextensionand0.04bar-riers/minfrequencyintheverticaldirection.Thelateralin-ter-sandbodymudstonebarriersindifferentperiodsarewellpreservedandoverahalfofthesinglesandbodysizeinex-tension.Muddyinterlayersarewell-developedinsidethesandbodies,andgenerally0.10.8minthicknessand10100minextension.Themuddyinterlayersbetweenandinsidesinglesandsappearat0.3interlayers/minverticaldirection.Overall,theshallowdeltadepositsinthestudyareafeatureacomplexinlayingarchitecture,withwell-developedlateralandverticalmudstonebarriersandmuddyinterlayersinsidesandbody(Fig.2a).2.2.Architectureandgenesisofbraided-riversandbodyThestudiedareaenteredintoadepressionlakebasinperiodafteroverallupliftanddenudationinthelateJurassicdeposi-tionstage.DuringthedepositionstageofLayerM-IIinearlyCretaceous,thestudiedareawascharacterizedbyhumidcli-mate,smalleraccommodationspace,adequateprovenancesupply,relativelylowA/Sratioandwidedevelopmentofbraided-riverfloodplains,andasetofbraided-riverreservoirmorethan100mthickdeposited.Thewholestudiedareawascoveredbythebraided-riversandbodyinplane,themid-channelbarsandbraided-riverchannelsatthewidthratioofabout3:1,featured“wide-barandnarrow-channel”networkdistribution[9].Duetostronghydrodynamicenergyandade-quateprovenancesupplyinthisdepositionstage,thebraided-riverchannelsfrequentlydiverted,sotheprevioussandbodiesarestronglyflushedbythelatesandbodiesduringthedivertingofbraided-riverchannels,whichresultsinthedirectcontactofdifferentsandbodiesindifferentperiodsandlowpreservationlevelofinter-sandbodymudstonebarriers.Thebraided-riverdepositsarecharacterizedby“mud-in-sand”structureonthewhole,withinter-sandbodymudstoneinter-layers05minthicknessand501300minextension.Themuddyinterlayersinsidesandbodiesarenearlyhori-zontalduetothelongitudinalaccretionofsandbodiesduringdeposition.Theplanedistributionandmorphologyofmuddyinterlayersinsidemid-channelbarsaresimilartothatofthemid-channelbars,andtherearefewgulliesinsidethemid-channelbars,indicatingrelativelylowhydrodynamicenergyduringthefloodingperiodandweakreconstructiontomuddyinterlayers,sothemuddyinterlayersarestableinplanedistribution[9].Themuddyinterlayersinsidemid-chan-nelbarsare0.150.40minthicknessand0.066.00interlay-ers/minfrequency.Themuddyinterlayersinsidebraidedchannelsaresimilarwiththebraidedchannelsinplanedistri-butionandmorphology,butpoorerincontinuity,indicatingrelativelyhighhydrodynamicenergyduringthefloodingpe-riodandstrongreconstructiontothemuddyinterlayers.Themuddyinterlayersinsidebraidedchannelsare0.10.4minthicknessand0.083.00interlayers/minfrequency.Onthewhole,thebraided-riversandbodyreservoirshaveasimplesandbodyarchitectureof“pan-communicatedsand-body”withnearlyhorizontalmuddyinterlayers(Fig.2b).2.3.Architectureandgenesisofmeandering-riversandbodyInthedepositionperiodoftheLowerCretaceousLayerM-I,withtheincreaseofsubsidingamplitude,anddecreaseofprovenancesupply,meandering-riverfloodplaindepositsin-cludingtwostagesofhigh-sinuositymeandering-riversweredevelopedinthestudyarea.Astheriversvariedinhydrody-namicintensity,theflushingintensityofstage-2channelstostage-1channelsaredifferent,sothebarriersbetweenthetwostagesofchannelshaveavaryingthicknessfrom0mto8m.Thereare5-6singlemeanderingbeltsinsidethechannelofthesamestage.Duetofrequentdiversionandlateralmigra-tionofthehigh-sinuositymeandering-rivers,themeander-ing-riversandbodiesarecharacterizedbylateralconnection.Theinter-sandbodymuddyinterlayersarenotdevelopedduetorelativelystronghydrodynamicenergy[1011].Pointbar,oneofthemainarchitectureunitsofmeander-ing-river,isformedbythelateralaccretionofmeander-ing-river.Thesinglepoint-barsinthestudyareaare410mthick,therearemuddylateralaccretioninterlayersof0.20.5minthicknessand5°6°indipangleinsidethepoint-bars,whichdividethepointbarsinto24lateralaccretionbodies.Theabandonedchannelsresultedfromriverdiversionhavemudstoneintheupperpartandsandstoneinthebottom,andthemudstonethicknessratioof20%52%.Theabandonedchannelistheterminationandboundaryofasinglepoint-bar.Inthefloodingperiod,sandandmudcarriedbyfloodwaterbreachingbankdepositedintooverbanksand.Onlyoccurringinlocalwellareasinthestudyarea,theoverbanksandisgen-erally0.13.0mthick,extending50300mperpendiculartothechanneldirectionand5001600malongthechanneldirection.Astheoverbanksandisofonestagegenesis,ithasnointerlayerinside.Thelevel4architectureunitsofmeandering-riversandbodymainlyconsistofpointbar,abandonedchannel,andoverbanksandbody,etc,amongthem,point-baristhedominantarchi-tectureunit.Architectureofthemeandering-riversandbodyischaracterizedby“semi-connectedsandbody”ofabandonedchannelsandpoint-barswithmuddylateralaccretioninter-layers(Fig.2c)[1214].Theaboveanalysisshowsthatthedelta,braided-riverandmeandering-riversandbodiesinthestudyareaarequitedif-ferentinarchitectureintermsofthelateralandverticalcon-tactandsuperpositionofsinglesandbodies,andthedevelop-mentanddistributionofmuddyinterlayersinsidesinglesandbodies.Thebraided-riversandbodiesdepositedinthestrongesthydrodynamicenergywiththestrongestdowncut-tingeffect,haveunder-developedinter-sandbodyverticalandlateralbarriers,nearlyhorizontalinterlayersinsidesingleZHAOLunetal./PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,2016,43(3):474–483477Fig.2.Architectureof3differenttypesofsandbodies(GR-GammaRay,SP-Self-Potential,RLLS-LaterologShallow,RLLD-LaterologDeep).ZHAOLunetal./PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,2016,43(3):474–483478sandbodies,andthesimplestarchitectureoutofthethree.Thedeltasandbodiesarediverseintype,inwhichrelativelyweakhydrodynamicenergyanddowncuttingofdistributarychan-nelsleadtowelldevelopmentofinter-sandbodyverticalandlateralbarriers,includinginclined,centricandnear-lateralmuddyinterlayerstowardthelakebasininthedistributarychannelsandbodies,sotheyaremostcomplexinarchitecture.Themeanderingriversandbodies,depositedinrelativelystronghydrodynamicenergyanddowncuttingeffect,havelocallydevelopedinter-sandbodyverticalandlateralbarriers,andlimitedmuddylateralaccretioninterlayersinsidesand-bodiesduetotheeffectoflateraldiversionandmigrationofthechannels,andarchitecturecomplexityinbetweenbraided-riveranddeltasandbodies(Table1).3.EffectofsandbodyarchitectureonwaterfloodingperformanceSinceputintodevelopmentin1990,thethreetypesofsandbodiesinthestudiedareahavegonethroughsimilarwa-terfloodingprocess,buthavedifferentdevelopmentperform-anceduetotheirdifferentarchitectures.Thewaterfloodingperformanceofreservoirsofdifferentsandbodieshavebeencomparedandanalyzedbasedontheproductionhistoryandproductiontestdataofmorethan360wellsandwater-outdataofnewdrilledwellsinrecentyears(Table2).Thedeltasandbodiesarecharacterizedbycomplexarchi-tecture,well-developedmuddyinterlayers,widevariationofpropertiesbetweenandinsidesandbodies,andstronghetero-geneity,sointhem,theinjectedwaterwouldflowalonghigh-qualityreservoirsandformpreferentialwaterchannelsduetotheblockingofdifferentmuddyinterlayers,leadingtolowsweepingefficiency.Theintakingthicknessratioofthiskindofsandbodyininjectingwellsis43.3%57.1%.Thereservoirsofthiskindofsandbodyfeaturestrongwater-outinlocalintervals,andhighthicknessratioofweakwater-outintervals,withanaveragestrongwater-outreservoirthicknessratioof9.7%23.8%.Thebraided-riversandbodieshavenearlyhorizontalmuddysiltinginterlayersandundevelopedlateralmuddyinterlayersinside,sotheyarepan-connectedsandbodieswithseveralflowingunitsdividedbyhorizontalmuddyinterlayerswithrelativelylowheterogeneity.Asaresult,inthiskindofreser-voirs,injectedwaterislittleblockedbylateralinterlayers,andhasweakwateradvancinginthebottomduetotheblockofmuddysiltinginterlayersinverticaldirection,resultinginrelativelyuniformwaterflooding.Theratioofintakingreser-voirthicknessandperforationreservoirthicknessis60.3%85.1%inwaterinjectingwells,showingrelativelyuniformreservoirintakingcapacity.Butthiskindofreservoirusuallyhasbottomaquifer,bottom-waterconingislikelytoTable1.ComparisonofarchitectureofdifferenttypesofsandbodiesDevelopmentofinter-sandbodymud-stonebarriersinverticaldirectionMuddyinterlayerdevelopmentinsidesinglesandbodySedi-mentaryFaciesArchitectureunitDevel-opmentFre-quency/(m1)Singlebarrierthick-ness/mExtendinglength/mLateralinter-sandbodybarriersMuddyinterlayerfrequency/(m1)Muddyinterlayerthickness/mLateralextend-inglengthofmuddyinter-layer/mSandbodyarchitectureDeltaUnderwaterdistributarychannel,sheetsandGood0.041121005000Good0.30.10.810100“Inlaying”sandbodyarchi-tecturewithwell-developedlateralandverticalmudstonebarriersandmuddyinterlayersinsidesandbodyBraided-riverBraidedchannel,mid-channelbarPoor0.0205501300Non0.60.10.4100800“Pan-communicated”archi-tecturewithnearlyhorizontalmuddyinterlayersMean-dering-riverPoint-bar,abandonedchannel,over-banksandMe-dium0.03508801500Non0.50.10.565350“Semi-connectedsandbody”ofabandonedchannelsandmuddylateralaccretionin-terlayersinsidepoint-barTable2.Water-intakingcapacityandwater-outstatisticsofdifferentsandbodiesWater-outthicknessratio/%SedimentaryfaciesSandbodyStrong
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