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RESEARCHPAPERPETROLEUMEXPLORATIONANDDEVELOPMENTVolume41,Issue3,June2014OnlineEnglisheditionoftheChineselanguagejournalCitethisarticleas:PETROL.EXPLOR.DEVELOP.,2014,41(3):358–364.Receiveddate:15Oct.2013;Reviseddate:12Feb.2014.*Correspondingauthor.E-mail:baozhd@cup.edu.cnFoundationitem:SupportedbytheResearch-startingFoundationofNorthwestUniversity(PR12101)andtheScienceFoundationofNorthwestUniversity(12NW36).Copyright©2014,ResearchInstituteofPetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,PetroChina.PublishedbyElsevierBV.Allrightsreserved.ReservoirarchitectureandremainingoildistributionofdeltaicfrontunderwaterdistributarychannelFENGCongjun1,2,BAOZhidong2,*,YANGLing3,SIXiong1,XUGuibin1,HANXiong11.StateKeyLaboratoryofContinentalDynamics,DepartmentofGeology,NorthwestUniversity,Xi’an710069,China;2.StateKeyLaboratoryofPetroleumResourceandProspecting,CollegeofGeosciences,ChinaUniversityofPetroleum,Beijing102249,China;3.ReservoirEvaluationCenter,ChinaPetroleumLoggingCO.LTD.,Xi’an710077,China;Abstract:TakingtheJ19densewellnetworkareaintheFuyuOilfieldasacase,combinedwithfieldoutcropandmodernshallowwaterdeltasedimentarymodelandusingcoringandloggingdata,thispaperputsforwardacomprehensiveanalysismethodforreservoirarchi-tectureofdeltaicfrontunderwaterdistributarychannelsinglesandbody.Thecausesandsedimentaryevolutionmechanismsforforesetsofretainedtype,destructivetypeandthemixedtypeandforforesetsandbodiesofprogradingtype,retrogradingtypeandaggradingtypearesummarized.Thecalibrationofrockandlogging,fittingformula,densespacingwellsandpairwellsdataareusedtoascertaintheforesetsandforesetsandbodies.Themodelsofthree-dimensionalreservoirarchitecturearesetup.Theanalysisofremainingoilshowsthatforesetcontrolstheverticaldistributionoftheremainingoil,whileintheinternalofforesetsandbodies,theremainingoilisenrichedintheupdipdirection.Keywords:deltaicfront;underwaterdistributarychannel;singlesandbody;reservoirarchitecture;remainingoilIntroductionInordertomeetthedemandoftheremainingoilrecoveryduringthelaterstageandtertiaryrecoveryofmatureoilfields,itisnecessarytogetabetterpictureoftheoilreservoir[1−3],theinternalstructureofsinglesandbody[4−10],delineatetheinternalstructureofsinglesandbodytensmetersoronlyafewmetersacrossbetweenwells,andestablishprecisereser-voirpredictionmodelsundertheconditionofdensewellpat-terndevelopment[11−17].AccordingtotheactualsituationofFuyuoilfield,thepapertriestofindoutthesinglesandbodyarchitectureandfinecharacterizationmethodsofdeltafrontunderwaterdistributarychannels.1GeologicalbackgroundLocatedinthecentraldepressionareaofsouthernSongliaoBasin(Fig.1),FuyuOilfieldisamediumporosityandme-diumpermeabilitystructuralsandstonereservoir.Fuyureser-voirofK1q4ataburialdepthof310to450metersisthemajoroilpaywithathicknessof70to120meters.Mainlyfeldsparlithicsandstoneandlithicfeldsparsandstone,therockisfineingrainsize,mediuminsortingandroundness.Heavymin-eralanalysisshowsthatthesedimentshavefarsourcetrans-portationfeatures,theprovenancesmainlycamefromthesouthwestandsouth,detritalmaterialwascarriedintothebasinalongthelongaxisofthebasin,thedepositionalsystemwasshallowwaterdelta.J19blockislocatedinthecentralofFuyuOilfield,wherefivetypesofsedimentarymicrofaciesdeveloped,namely,underwaterdistributarychannel,mouthbar,distalbar,underwaternaturallevee,anddistributarybay.Thelithologyofunderwaterdistributarychannelinthestudyareaismainlythickfinesandstoneandsiltstone,withthininterlayersofmudstoneorcalcareoussiltstone.Theredevelopedcrossbedding,parallelbedding,massivebedding,surfaceofscour,occasionallagdepositsintheunderwaterdistributarychannel;theverticalsequenceispositiverhythmorcompositerhythm;theunderwaterdistributarychannelisflatontopandconvexatbottom,thegranularityofcumula-tiveprobabilitycurvecontainstwostages;wellloggingcurvesareusuallyinboxorbellshape.Thefiningofparticlesizeandshalecontentincreasegraduallyupwardintheunderwaterdistributarychannel,togetherwithstrongwatersweepingatthelowerpartoftheunderwaterdistributarychannel,resultinthefactthatremainingoilismainlydistributedintheupperpartofunderwaterdistributarychannel.FENGCongjunetal./PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,2014,41(3):358–364−359−Fig.1StructurelocationofFuyuOilfield(Fromreference[18],modified)2Quantitativecharacterizationofarchitecturalelements2.1TypeofarchitecturalelementsArchitecturalelementsarethearchitecturalunitsoftheres-ervoir[19−23],accordingtotheinterfaceclassificationofMiall[8]andthedifferenceinthesinglesandbodydepositionmechanism,therearetwokindsofarchitecturalelementsinunderwaterdistributarychannelsinglesandbody,foresetsandbodyandforeset.Theforesetsandbodyisthesandysedimentaryunitdepositedinstronghydrodynamiccondition,theforesetistheargillaceoussedimentaryunitdepositedinweakhydrodynamiccondition.2.2Quantitativecharacterizationofforeset2.2.1TypeofforesetAforesetisanargillaceoussedimentaryunitdepositedontheearlyforesetsandbody,meanwhileitcanbedestructedandreconstructedbythenextforesetsandbody,soitisanimpor-tantsymboltodistinguishtwoforesetsandbodies.Accordingtothedamagedegreeofforesetsperpendiculartotheunder-waterdistributarychannel,theforsetevolutioninverticaldirectioncanbedividedintothreetypes(Fig.2).(1)Remainedformforeset.Theremainedformforesetre-ferstotheforesetthatisnotcompletelydestructedandre-mainsacertainthickness,duetoweakerlocalscouringbythelaterforesetsandbody.Infloodperiod,sufficientprovenancesupplywouldresultinsandysediments,i.e.theforesetsand-body;aftertheflood,argillaceoussedimentswoulddepositontotheforesetsandbody,formingaforeset;theninthenextfloodperiod,anewforesetsandbodywoulddepositontotheforeset.Iftheforesetwasweaklydestructedandcouldbepreserved,manytimesafterthefloodingevents,theremainedformforesetwouldcomeintobeingwhichcontainsmultipleforesetsandforesetsand-bodies(Fig.2a).(2)Destructiveforeset.Thedestructiveforesetreferstotheforesetwhichisdestructedinthecenterofthechannel,andleftpartiallyinonlytwowingsofthechannelduetostronglocalscouringofthenextforesetsandbody.Manytimesafterthefloodingevents,thedestructiveprofileforesetwouldformwhichcontainsmultipledestructedforesetsandforesetsand-bodies(Fig.2b).(3)Mixedforeset.Themixedforesetisacombinationofremainedformforesetanddestructiveprofileforeset.Becausedifferentfloodsaredifferentinhydraulicenergy,soaretheirtransportationanddeposition,andtheirdestructiontotheforeset,manytimesafterthefloodingevents,mixedforesetwouldformwhichcontainsmultipledestructedforesetsandforesetsandbodies(Fig.2c).2.2.2OccurrenceandscaleofforesetsIntheinteriorofunderwaterdistributarychannel,tendencyofforesetismainlyreferringtothedirectionofextensionofunderwaterdistributarychannel.Thedipofforesetisthean-glebetweentheprogradationplaneandthehorizontalplane.Statisticsshowthatthedipofprogradingtypeandretrograd-ingtypeforesetsislarger,generallybetween3°and6°;thedipofaggradingtypeforesetsissmaller,mostlyinbetween0and3°.Perpendiculartotheextensiondirectionoftheriver,thewidthofremainedformforesetsapproximatelyequalstothewidthofthechannel;thewidthofdestructiveforesets,relatedtotheextentofdamage,isdifficulttoquantify.2.2.3QuantitativecharacterizationofforesetthicknessThelithologyofforesetsinunderwaterdistributarychannelinthestudyareaincludeslaminatedmudstoneorsiltymud-stone,generally0.2to0.6meterthick.Thepresenceoffore-setsresultsinsignificantreturnonR05(0.5meterspotentialresistivity)andR25(2.5metersbottomofgradientresistivity)curves,naturalgammacurvesalsoshowreturn.ThereturnFig.2EvolutiontypeofforesetsperpendiculartotheunderwaterdistributarychannelFENGCongjunetal./PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,2014,41(3):358–364−360−Fig.3LoggingresponsetypesofforesetsintheJ19wellarea,FuyuOilfielddegreeisrelatedtothethicknessoftheforeset,thegreatertheforesetthickness,thehigherthecurvereturndegreewillbe,therefore,accordingtothedegreeofcurvereturn,thethick-nessoftheforesetcanbeestimated.Theresistivitycurvesofforesetsinunderwaterdistributarychannelsofthestudyareahavethreetypesofreturndegree,stair-type,demi-typeandbaseline-type(Fig.3).(1)Stair-typecurvereturning.Stair-typecurvereturningreferstominuteornoobviousreturningofR05curve.Thistypeofcurvessuggestthattheforesetiscompletelyorlocallywashedaway,leavingtheremainingforesetthin,whichre-sultsinnoorminutereturn.Thistypeofcurvereturningislikelytooccurwhenthethicknessofforesetislessthan0.2meters(Fig.3a).(2)Demi-typecurvereturning.Demi-typecurvereturningdenotesthereturningonR05curveisclosetohalfthepeakamplitude.Thiskindofcurvereturningmayoccurwhenthethicknessofforesetsisbetween0.2to0.4m(Fig.3b).(3)Baseline-typecurvereturning.Baseline-typecurvere-turningmeansthatthereturningdegreeofR05curveishigh,neartheshaleline.Thiskindofreturninggenerallyappearswhenthethicknessofforesetsisgreaterthan0.4m(Fig.3c).StatisticsshowtheforesetthicknessofcoringwellshasapositivecorrelationwiththereturnofthecurveR05(ΔR05)inthestudyarea,thethickertheforeset,thehigherdegreetheFig.4RelationshipbetweenR05curvereturndegreeandforesetthicknessofK1q4inthestudyareacurvereturnwillbe.Accordingtothat,aquantitativefittingformulawasderived(Fig.4)toidentifytheforesetsofnon-coringwellsinthestudyarea.2.2.4Loggingresponsesofforesets(1)Loggingresponsesofremainedformforesets.Wellpreservedandthick,remainedformforesetsusuallyleadtobaselinestyleordemi-stylereturnonR05curveonwell-tieprofileperpendiculartotheriverchannel,withclearmulti-wellcombinationmarks,thistypeofforesetcanbeeas-ilycorrelatedbetweenwells(Fig.5a).(2)Loggingresponsesofdestructiveforesets.Fordestruc-tiveforesets,thepartinthecenterofthechannelismostlyorcompletelywashedaway,thepartsintwowingsofthechan-nelalsoarewashed,becomingthinner.Therefore,onthewell-tieprofileperpendiculartothechannel,thiskindofforesetsusuallycausestair-typereturninthechannelcenteronR05curves,anddemi-typeorbaseline-typereturnsintwowingsofthechannel(Fig.5b),withfairlyapparentcorrelationsignsbetweenwells.(3)Loggingresponseofmixedforesets.Mixedforesets,havingboththefeaturesofremainedformforesetsandde-structiveforesets,canbeidentifiedaccordingtothesignsoftheformertwotypesofforesets.2.3Quantitativecharacterizationofforesetsandbody2.3.1TypesofforesetsandbodiesAforesetsandbodyisasandysedimentaryunitdepositedduringfloodrecession.Alongthedirectionofunderwaterdistributarychannel,thelakelevelfluctuationandratioofsedimentsupplyratetoaccommodationspaceindifferentperiodsresultsindifferentstackingstylesofforesetsandbod-ieswhichcanbegroupedinto3kinds,progradation,retro-gradationandaggradation.(1)Progradationforesetsandbody.Aprogradationforesetsandbodyreferstothedepositionalmodelthatthelaterforesetsandbodycoversontheearlierforesetandforesetsanbodyandmigratestowardsthebasingradually,whichisformedwhenlakelevelfallsandthesedimentsupplyrateisgreaterthantheaccommodationspaceincreasingrate(Fig.6a).FENGCongjunetal./PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,2014,41(3):358–364−361−Fig.5LoggingresponsetypesofforesetsinJ19wellarea,FuyuOilfieldFig.6Stackingstylesofforesetsandbodiesalongunderwaterdistributarychannel(2)Retrogradationforesetsandbody.Aretrogradationfore-setsandbodyreferstothedepositionalmodelthatthelaterforesetsandbodycoveringabovetheearlierforesetandfore-setsanbodydrawsbacktowardstheland,whichisformedwhenlakelevelrisesandtheaccommodationspaceincreasingrateisgreaterthanthesedimentsupplyrate(Fig.6b).(3)Aggradationforesetsandbody.Anaggradationforesetsandbodydenotesthedepositionalmodelthatthelaterforesetsandbodycoveringabovetheearlierforesetandforesetsan-bodystacksuponeovertheotherwhichisgeneratedwhentheaccommodatespaceincreasingratenearlyequalstothesedimentsupplyrate(Fig.6c).2.3.2OccurrenceandscaleofforesetsandbodyInsideunderwaterdistributarychannel,tendencyofforesetsandbodyismainlypointingtothedirectionofextensionoftheunderwaterdistributarychannel.Similarwiththedipofforeset,thedipofforesetsandbodyisalsotheanglebetweentheprogradationplaneandthehorizontalplane.Perpendiculartotheunderwaterdistributarychannel,thewidthoftheforesetsandbodyapproximatelyequalstothewidthoftheunderwaterdistributarychannel.2.3.3Loggingresponsefeaturesofforesetsandbody(1)Loggingresponsesofprogradationforesetsandbody.Progradationforesetsandbodycomesintobeingwhenthelaterforesetsandbodymovestowardsthebasinduringthefalloflakelevel.Therefore,thelaterforesetsandbodyalongthedirectionofunderwaterdistributarychannelisbell-shapeorbox-shapeontheR05curve,whiletheearlyforesetsandbodyextendsshorter(Fig.7a).(2)Loggingresponsesofretrogradationforesetsandbody.Retrogradationforesetsandbodyformswhenthelaterforesetsandbodydrawsbacktowardsthelandduringtheriseoflakelevel.Therefore,theearlyforesetsandbodyalongthedirec-tionofunderwaterdistributarychannelisbell-shapeorbox-shapeontheR05curveandthelaterforesetsandbodyextendsshorter(Fig.7b).(3)Loggingresponsesofaggradationforesetsandbody.Aggradationforesetsandbodyisformedwhentheaccommo-datespaceincreasingrateequalstothesedimentsupplyrate.Therefore,thetwostagesofforesetsandbodyalongthedirec-tionofunderwaterdistributarychannelarebothbell-shapeorbox-shapeontheR05curve(Fig.7c).3ArchitecturemodelofunderwaterdistributarychannelInrecentyears,thereisalotofliteratureondeltareservoirarchitecture[24−25],differentscholarsestablisheddifferentar-chitecturemodelsofdeltaicfrontunderwaterdistributaryFENGCongjunetal./PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,2014,41(3):358–364−362−Fig.7LoggingresponsecharacteristicsofforesetsandbodyinJ19wellarea,FuyuOilfieldFig.8Architecturemodelsofdeltaicfrontunderwaterdis-tributarychannelofK1q4inFuyuOilfieldchannelsinglesandbody,mainlyincluding:aggradingtype[26],progradingtype[27]andlateraltype[27].Basedonpreviousre-search,andthequantitativeanatomicaloutcomesofreservoirarchitectureelementsofunderwaterdistributarychannels,theauthorshaveidentifiedthearchitecturemodelsofdeltaicfrontunderwaterdistributarychannelsinglesandbodyofK1q4inthestudyarea(Fig.8).4Three-dimensionalmodelingoftypicalwellareaReservoirarchitecturemodelingreconstructsthegeometryandscaleofarchitecturalelementsinthree-dimensionalspace,whichcanreflectthedistributioncharacteristicsofreservoirinternalsandbodyclearly.Therefore,basedonthereservoirarchitectureofunderwaterdistributarychannel,takingthesedimentaryfaciesmodelofshallowwaterdeltaasaguide,afineanatomicalmodelofJ19wellareawasbuiltbyusingsemi-deterministicmodelingtechniques,sequentialindicatorsimulation,modelfittingandinteractivewayswiththeresearchoutcomesofdensespacingwellsofthestudyarea(Fig.9).ItcanbeseenfromFig.9,inthedepositionalperiodofthe3thsinglesandbodyofthe6thlayerofK1q4inthestudyarea,thelakelevelrosegradually,twoforesetsandbodiesweredevelopedintheunderwaterdistributarychannelsinglesandbody.Bothofthemwereinthesouthwest-northeastdirection,inbandorfrontforkshape;thereweresomelateralswingsbetweenthem,thesecondonerecessedtothedirectionofland,thosetwoforesetsandbodiesformatypicalmodelofretrogradationforesetsandbody.FENGCongjunetal./PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,2014,41(3):358–364−363−Fig.9Architecturemodelofthe3rdsinglesandbodyinthe6thlayerofK1q4inJ19wellarea,FuyuOilfield5ControlofarchitecturalelementsoverremainingoildistributionThereservoirarchitectureunitsofunderwaterdistributarychannelsinglesandbodyofK1q4int
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