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XiongResearchInstituteofExplorationandDevelopment,ChangqingOilfieldCompany,ChinaArticlehistory:Received7July2015Receivedinrevisedform27October2015Accepted27October2015Keywords:abstractwatercuttheratiooftotal30%.Thetwomainefficiencyellpatterninfillingoildevelopment.aythatweusedinfrequentlybringanalyzingthephysicalpropertychangewillnotonlyhelptoeffectivedevelopment,butalsoprovideimportantparametersfortertiaryoilrecoverytechnique.AccordingtothewaterfloodingproblemsthatwefacedinthewellpatterninfillingofMalingoilfieldBSdistrict,thispaperanalyzestheeffectofphysicalpropertychangetotheoilfieldwaterfloodingandEOR,andprovidesthebasisofoildevelop-mentdecision.*Correspondingauthor.E-mailaddress:sgyn_cq@petrochina.com.cn(Y.Shangguan).PeerreviewunderresponsibilityofSouthwestPetroleumUniversity.ProductionandHostingbyElsevieronbehalfofKeAiContentslistsavailablePetroleumjournalhomepage:www.keaipublishinPetroleum1(2015)300e306manyyearsofwaterflooding,ChangqingoilfieldJurassicmedia-moredifficultiestothewellpatterninfillingandEOR,so1.IntroductionAtpresent,therearethreetypesofdevelopedmainreservoirsinChangqingoilfield:Jurassicreservoir,Triassiclowandextra-lowpermeabilityreservoir[1],whichaccountfortheproduc-inggeologicalreservesof17%,51%and32%respectively.Jurassicreservoir'saveragecalibrationrecoveryis24.7%,withgeologicalreservesrecoveryof16.6%,watercutof65.2%.Forlowpermeabilityreservoirhasenteredthemedia-highphase,thewater-cutratehasbeenover75%andoilproducedtotheOOIPhasbeenlessthanfactorsthatinfluencetheoilrecoveryaredisplacementandvolumetricsweepefficiency,thereforewandEORbecomeeffectivemethodstoimproveHowever,thewaterfloodingdevelopmentwthepastandthephysicalpropertychangewillJurassicreservoirPhysicalpropertychangeWaterfloodingCoreanalysisEORLowpermeabilityhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petlm.2015.10.0102405-6561/Copyright©2015,SouthwestPetroleumUnaccessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-NDlicense(http://creatiChangqingoldoilfieldJurassicreservoir'saveragecalibrationrecoveryis24.7%,withgeologicalreservesrecoveryof16.6%,watercutof65.2%.AndmostofJurassicreservoirsareinthemiddleandlaterfieldlife,partofthemhasenteredthehighwatercutandhighrecoverystage.Traditionalwaterfloodingwayforimprovingoilrecoverybecomesmoredifficult,andnewmethodhastobeconsidered.MalingoilfieldBSdistrictisatypicalrepresentative,withhighwatercutof90.8%,highrecoverypercentof26.1%andlowoilrecoveryrateof0.25%.Toexplorethenewwaytoimproveoilrecovery,thepolymerandsurfactant(SPforshort)importantpilottesthasbeendeveloped.Thelowpermeabilityreservoirindoorcoredatainhighwatercutstageandinspectionwellresultsindicatethatthereservoirpermeability,porecombinationcharacteristicsandporetypechangedgreatlyafterlong-termwaterfloodingdevelopment.Thesechangesbringmoredifficultiestothecontinuedevelopment,especiallythehighinjectionpressure,whichcancauseotherproblemsforwellpatterninfillingandEOR.ThispapertakesthehighinjectionpressureproblemofMalingBSdistrictJurassicreservoirforexample,analyzesthephysicalpropertychangelawonthefollowingaspects:thedevelopmentmodeinthepast,coreanalysis,formationsensitivity,interstitialmatter,welltestinterpretationresults,inordertohelptofurthereffectivedevelopmentandprovideimportantparametersfortertiaryoilrecoverytechniqueforsimilarreservoirsandothers.Copyright©2015,SouthwestPetroleumUniversity.ProductionandhostingbyElsevierB.V.onbehalfofKeAiCommunicationsCo.,Ltd.ThisisanopenaccessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-NDlicense(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).articleinfoOriginalarticleTheeffectofphysicalpropertychangedevelopmentinChangqingoilfieldJurreservoirYangnanShangguan*,YongqiangZhang,Weiliangiversity.Productionandhostingvecommons.org/licenses/byonthewaterfloodingassiclowpermeabilityatScienceDirectg.com/en/journals/petlmbyElsevierB.V.onbehalfofKeAiCommunicationsCo.,Ltd.Thisisanopen-nc-nd/4.0/).2.TestareageneralsituationChangqingJurassicoldoilfield,representedbyMalingoilfield,hashighwatercut,highrecoverypercent,lowoilrecoveryrateandlowwaterfloodingrecovery.ToexplorethenewwaytoimprovetheoilrecoveryofJurassicreservoir,wedevelopedpolymerandsurfactantimportanttestintheremainingoilareaoftheMalingoilfieldBSdistrict.BSdistrictlocatedatHuancountyofGansuprovince,explo-rationstartedinthemid-1970s,developmentstartedin1998,mainproductionhorizonisYan'anFormationY-10,calibrationrecoveryis27.7%,withtheaverageporosityof13.3%,theaveragepermeabilityof110mD,theoriginaloilsaturationof62%,theformationwatersalinityof23800mg/L,theinitialformationpressureof13.48MPa,theinitialreservoirtemperatureof50C14C.Testareawasselectedinthenorthabundantremainingoilarea,inthetestarea14newwellsweredrilledand2oldwellswereutilized,andirregularinvertedseven-spotwellpatternhasbeenadjustedtofive-spot,producer-injectorspacingchangesfrom250e350mto150m(Fig.1).Inthewaterfloodingstage,theinjectionpressurereachesto17MPaintheearlyproductionstage,consequently,tworoundsacidificationandstopinjection,threeroundsinjection-productionadjustmenthavebeenconductedtoreduceinjec-tionpressure.Themeasuresresultisobvious,buttheoveralleffectivetimeisveryshort(average68days.Atpresent,thewaterinjectionpressurestillremainsat17MPa,thereisnopressurerisespaceforsubsequentpolymerandsurfactantflooding.Thehighinjectionpressurecausedseriousproblemsto3.ReasonanalysisofhighinjectionpressureHistoricaldataofwaterinjectionwellindicatesthathighin-jectionpressurewasrelativelyhighintheearlyproductionstagebecauseofwater-sensitivityandacidsensitivity.Therewere16waterinjectionwellsduring1999.8e2010.9inthedevelopmentofMalingoilfieldBSdistrict.Accordingtothewaterinjectiondatastatisticsoverthepastyears,9waterwellsinjectionpressurewereabove14MPa,therestwell'sinjectionpressureisbelow10MPa,butsuccessivelyriseabove15MPainthelaterperiod.Undertheoriginalreservoircondition,56%injectionwell'sinjectionpressurewasat14.5e16MPawhichisarelativelyhighvalueforJurassicreservoir,theinjectionwaterandformationareincompatible;buttheinjectionpressurecanbereducedto10e12MPaifacidificationhasobviouseffects,butitstillrisetoFig.2.BSdistrictinjectionpressurehistoricaldata.Y.Shangguanetal./Petroleum1(2015)300e306301thewaterfloodingandpolymerandsurfactantflooding.Afterthefailureofthesemeasures,itiscrucialandurgentforustomakeclearwhytheinjectionpressureishigherthanbeforewhentheproducer-injectorspacingisshorter,someresearcheswerecar-riedouttostudythereasonofhighinjectionpressure(Fig.2).Fig.1.Injectionpressuredistributionmap.15e16MPaslowlybecauseoftheformationplugginganddam-agecausedbylongtermwaterinjection.ThemonthlydatacurveofwaterinjectionwellM13-12demonstratesthischaracteristic(Fig.3).Undertheoriginalreservoircondition,37%injectionwell'spressureislessthan5MPa,but3ofthemrapidlyriseto15MPainthenextyearandanother3slowlyriseto15e18MPa,for-mationplugginganddamageexitbecauselong-termwaterin-jection.ThemonthlydatacurveofwaterinjectionwellM10-91demonstratesthischaracteristic(Fig.4).Weplotthescatterdiagramofinjectionpressureanddailyinjectedratefromtheoldwaterinjectionwellwhoseregulatedinjectionrateisover30m3,thereforeifdailyinjectedrateislessthan10,itmeansthatthewaterisnotbeinginjectedorinjectedenough.Throughthestatisticaldataresearch,itisclearthattheinjectionpressuremainlykeepsaroundthelevelof16MPaifwaterisnotbeinginjectedorinjectedenough;injectionpressuremainlykeepsaroundthelevelof12MPaifwaterisbeinginjectedwell(Fig.5).Inordertoresearchtheresidualoildistributionandforma-tionchange,threeinspectionwellsweredrilledand239itemsofindoorcoreexperimentswereconducted.Inspectionwellanal-ysisresultsindicatethatthemeanporesizedecreases,porestructureiscomplex,physicalpropertybecomesbadbecauseoflong-termdevelopmentwithlowerthaninitialformationpres-sure,interstitialmatterincrease.TheporestructuretyperesearchindicatesthatBSdistrictporetypesareprimarilyintergranularporeswiththeaverageareapercentofporeof8.6%,meanporesizeof83mm.Comparingtotheexploratory,allofthesedatadecrease.ResearchshowsthatthisdecreaseisrelatedtotheformationpressurechangeandInitialformationpressureofBSdistrictis13.48MPa,andtheformationpressuredecreaseddramaticallyintheearlydevel-opmentperiodbecausetheinjection-productionsystemisimperfectandoilrecoveryrateistoohigh.Theformationpres-surereturnedtobeaboveinitialformationpressurein2008duetohighwatercutoilwellconvertedintoinjectionwell.Sincetheformationporechangeisirreversible,evenformationpressurecanbebacktoinitialformationpressurebywaterinjection,theporecanneverbebacktotheoriginalstate,physicalpropertybecomeworse.Theformationpressureisabovetheinitialpressureinthelateperioddevelopmentwhichinsomeextentaggravatestheriseofinjectionpressure.Theformationdamage,causedbythisreason,canbegreaterthanthatofreservoirsensitivity(Fig.6).Theresearchresultsofreservoirsensitivityshowthediffer-encebetweentheoldwells'dataandinspectionwell.Forvelocitysensitivity,theoldwells'datapointsoutthatthereisnovelocitysensitivity.Inspectionwellanalysisshowsthemediumtoweaksensitivity.Forwatersensitivity,theoldwells'datapointsoutmediumtostrongwatersensitivity,buttheinspectionwellshowsmediumtoweaksensitivity.Foracidsensitivity,theoldwells'datapointsoutweakacidsensitivity,buttheinspectionwellshowsthatmediumtoweaksensitivity,strongsensitivityexist[2].Thedifferencemaybecausedbythesamplelimitation,butitprovidesthebasicinformation.Interstitialmatterresearchshowsthatthetotalcontentinterstitialmatterincrease,primarilysiliceousminerals,hydro-micaandKaolinitewhichaccountfor92.3%oftotalinterstitialmatter.ThecastingthinsectionspictureshowAuthigenicmin-eralplugthechannel,Kaolinitecalymineralmigrateswithin-jectionwaterandaccumulatesintheotherpartoftheporeandY.Shangguanetal./Petroleum1(2015)300e306302formationplugging(Table1).Fig.3.M13-12monthlyplugstinychannel[3].Quartzovergrouthandhydromicamatrixdatacurve.eumY.Shangguanetal./Petrolfillthepore[3].kaolinitereductionindicatesthatwatersensi-tivitymineraliscarriedbyinjectedwater;hydromicaincreasesuggeststhatwatersensitivitymineralswellsanddisperseinwater,plugssmallerchannelandtheformationporeconnec-tivitydecreases(Figs.7and8).BSdistrictY10formationmercuryintrusionporestructurecharacteristicdatashowsthatComparingtotheexploratorywelldata,porosity,medianradiusdecrease,thresholdpressure,me-dianpressureincrease,porestructureisgettingworse[4].Ac-cordingtothephysicalpropertydatastatisticsofinspectionwellcoresampleanalysis,mainproductionhorizonY1012islowpermeabilityreservoirwithaveragepermeabilityof109mD,averageporosityof13.0%、comparingtothepreviousdata,theporositysomewhatdecreasesandpermeabilityremainsFig.4.M10-91monthlyFig.5.Scatterdiagramofinjectionpressureanddailyinjectedrate(regulatedrateC2130m3).datacurve.1(2015)300e306303unchanged.Onthebasisofpresentproductionperformance,experimentalpermeabilityisnotreliable,dynamicpermeabilityshouldbeexaggeratedthecontrast(Table2).Welltestinterpretationistheonlymethodtocalculatethedynamicpermeability.ItisknownthatwelltestsoftwarecalculationisbasedontheclassicalDarcyLawwhichisnotcompletelysuitableforourlowandextra-lowpermeabilityreservoir,sotheinterpretedpermeabilitymaybenotaccurate,butwestillcanpredictthetrendofphysicalpropertychangebystudyingthechangelawoftheinterpretedpermeabilityandpressurederivativecurveswithoutknowingthespecificrealdynamicpermeability[5].Thecomparisonofthewelltestcurveandinterpretedresultsbetweennewandoldwaterinjectionwellindicatethatdynamicpermeabilitygraduallydecreases,formationpluggingisseriousandphysicalpropertybecomesbad(Fig.9).Thewelltestdataofoldwaterinjectionwellindicatesthat,asthewaterinjectiondevelopment,welltestinterpretedperme-abilityisgraduallysmaller,pressurederivativecurvehomoge-neousphaseislosing,differenceamongpressureandpressurederivativecurveisshorter,andsmallhumpsonderivativecurveswhichmeansthephysicalpropertybecomesworse[6].Ac-cordingtothestatisticsofallinjectionwell'swelltestingdata,weplottherelationgraphs.Theinjectionpressurehasnegativecorrelationwiththeinterpretedpermeability,thehigherinjec-tionpressureis,thelowerpermeabilitywillbe.Thewelltestdataofoldwaterinjectionwellindicatesthat,asthewaterinjectiondevelopment,welltestinterpretedperme-abilityisgraduallysmaller,pressurederivativecurvehomoge-neousphaseislosing.Thedifferenceamongpressureandpressurederivativecurveisshorter,andsmallhumpsonderivativecurveswhichmeansthephysicalpropertybecomesworse[7].avg.porediameter(um)poresIntracrystallineporeMicrofissurePlaneporosity0.20.016.41080.40.010.81150.20.016.41100.20.013.2800.30.09.51400.20.013.21110.40.015.6138oleum1(2015)300e306Table1BSY10formationporecombinationcharacteristics.WellReservoirspace(%)IntergranularporesIntergranulardissolvedporesFelspardissolvedporesCuttingdissolvedM18-915.00.00.80.4M1018.50.50.90.5M10215.00.00.80.4M10311.80.00.70.4XM10-86.50.02.30.1Subtotal11.40.11.10.4MJ10313.60.01.00.6Y.Shangguanetal./Petr304Taketheoldwell'sdataof12-9forexample,theinterpretedpermeabilitydecreaseyearbyyearandthedistancebetweendifferencecurveandderivativecurveincreaseanddecreasecorrespondingly.Whichmeanthephysicalpropertybecomesworsewithwaterinjection.Fornewwell,wecanseefromtheinjectionprofile,after9monthsinjection,theupperlayerstopabsorbingwater,corre-spondinglytheradialflowislosinginthederivativecurveandtheinterpretedpermeabilitydecrease,injectionpressurein-crease;aftertheacidificationtheupperlayerstartabsorbingwateragain,theinterpretedpermeabilityincrease,injectionpressuredecreasewhichmeanstheinjectionpressureprofileinterpretedpermeabilitypressurecurveandinjectionprofileMJ15-104.30.10.70.30.20.15.646MJH5-36.70.20.60.30.20.18.162MJ13-87.10.60.90.40.30.09.461Subtotal8.60.20.90.40.30.0310.483Fig.6.BSdistrictformationpressurecurve.Fig.7.Authigenicmineralplugthechannel.Fig.8.Kaolinitemigrateandplugchannel.Table2BSdistrictY1012formationconventionalphysicalpropertyanalysisdata.WellSamplenumberPorosity(%)Permeability(10C03mm2)MinMaxAvgMinMaxAvgM14-5846.716.512.70.14250.6104M18-9799.517.313.90.1118085XM10-8627.718.1150.72705.7116Subtotal2258.017.313.90.32379102MJ103957.917.613.70.21927.9129MJ15-101722.718.712.40.13452117MJH5-31536.818.813.70.11980135MJ13-81707.216.7130.11142.976Subtotal4955.718.113.00.12525109Fig.9.Therelationmapofinjectionpressureandinterpretedpermeability.Fig.10.M12-9welltestdoublelogarithmpressurecurve(2004.2006.2008.2009).Y.Shangguanetal./Petroleum1(2015)300e306305correctmeasurearrangementanddecisionmakingshouldbeconductedsuccessfullyforthefurtheroilfielddevelopment,andtheexperiencealsohasgreatguidingsignificanceforthewaterfloodingdevelopmentofotherreservoirtype.(1)UndertheoriginalconditioninBSdistrict,injectionpressurecanreachto15e16MPa;ifthewaterisnotbeinginjected,theinjectioncanbe16MPa,whichisrelativelyhighfortionpressureshouldnotbelowerthantheinitialformationpressureforalongterm.Y.Shangguanetal./Petroleum1(2015)300e306306Fig.11.MH8-1pressuredropcurve.Table3BSdistrictwaterqualitymonitoringresults.SampletimeSamplepositionTotaliron,mg/LC200.4Suspendedmatter,mg/LC201.0Particlemeandiameter,mmC201.02013.8.28Watersourcewell0.7130.2332013.8.28Watertankexport1.142.562013.8.28Finefiltratorexport1.183.223.0622013.8.28Ionexchangerexport1.001.222013.8.28Pumpimport2.618.892.6182013.8.28Polymertankexport0.853.222013.8.28Polymerfiltrator1.181
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