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RESEARCHPAPERPETROLEUMEXPLORATIONANDDEVELOPMENTVolume41,Issue5,October2014OnlineEnglisheditionoftheChineselanguagejournalCitethisarticleas:PETROL.EXPLOR.DEVELOP.,2014,41(5):654–662.Receiveddate:10Feb.2014;Reviseddate:03Jul.2014.*Correspondingauthor.E-mail:sunyu_hc@163.comFoundationitem:SupportedbytheNationalNaturalScienceFoundationofChina(41172135);NationalScienceandTechnologyMajorProject(2011ZX05010-001-004).Copyright©2014,ResearchInstituteofPetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,PetroChina.PublishedbyElsevierBV.Allrightsreserved.PointbarconfigurationandresidualoilanalysisbasedoncoreanddensewellpatternYANBaiquan1,2,*,ZHANGXinlei1,YULimin3,ZHANGDong4,JIANGGuipu4,YANGYongjie5,SUNYu1,2,HANXiaolong1,XUYagang61.HeilongjiangOilandGasReservoirFormingMechanismandResourceEvaluationKeyLaboratory(NortheastPetroleumUniversity),Daqing163318,China;2.StateKeyLaboratoryofOilandGasReservoirGeologyandExploitation(SouthwestPetroleumUniversity),Chengdu610500,China;3.ExplorationandDevelopmentResearchInstitute,PetroChinaJilinOilfieldCompany,Songyuan138000,China;4.No.4OilProductionCompany,PetroChinaDaqingOilfieldCompanyLimited,Daqing163000,China;5.ChangqingBusinessDepartment,ChinaNationalPetroleumLoggingCo.Ltd,Xi’an710072,China;6.ChinaPetroleumIraqiCorporation,Beijing100011,ChinaAbstract:BasedonthedensewellpatternandthecoredataofstraightwellsandhorizontalwellsofPI332unitofPutaohuaoillayer,CretaceousYaojiaFormationinXingbeiareaofDaqingOilfield,accordingtothemodelofmodernsedimentsandancientoutcrop,theconfigurationparametersoflateralinterbedsconfigurationareacquiredbyrock-electricitycombination,whichareusedtoanalyzethethree-dimensionalconfigurationcharacteristicsofthepointbarlateralaccretioninterbedslocatedinthemeanderingdistributarychannelofthedeltadistributaryplainandtheresidualoildistribution.Theresultsshowthatthelateralaccretioninterbedsofpointbararethin,slow,anddenseinPI332unitofXingbeiarea.Thethicknessofinterbedsismainly2−25cm.Theupperandlowerdipangleofinterbedsissmallerat2°−5°.Themiddleofinterbedsissteeperat7°−10°.Theplanedistributiondensityis0.11/m.Thethree-dimensionalspatialconfigurationconsistsoftheplaneandprofilefeatures.Thelateralaccretioninterbedsareincrescentarrangementontheplane,andinimbricateandechelondistributionontheprofile.Undertheinfluenceoflateralaccretioninterbedsarchitectureandthephysicaldiffer-enceoflateralaccretions,themiddleandlowerpartsofpointbarsareseriouslyflooded,andtheresidualoilismainlydistributedinthemiddleandupperparts.Thehorizontalsectionofahorizontalwellshouldbedesignedinthemiddleandupperpartsofpointbars,anditshoulddrilloutthemiddleandupperpartsoflateralaccretionbodiestoincreasethesupplyunitandenhanceoilrecovery.Keywords:monosandstonebody;pointbar;thininterbed;lateralaccretionbody;lateralaccretioninterbed;configuration;residualoil;densewellpatternIntroductionWiththeoilfielddevelopmentgoingdeeperanddeeper,spatialdistributionofthininerbeds(configurationorarchi-tecturecharacteristics)hasamoreandmoresignificanteffectonmonosandstonebodyheterogeneity,seepagecharacteristics,andresidualoilformationanddistribution[1−10].Especiallyinhighandextrahighwatercutperiodofoldoilfields,thein-ternalstructureadjustmentofthickoilreservoirshasbecomethekeytokeepingtheproductionstableofoldoilfields,andtorealizingreal“seconddevelopmentofoldoilfields”.Sincemeanderingpointbarsarethemainbodyofthickoillayers,theoccurrence,scaleanddistributionofthininterbedsinsidethepointbarcontroldirectlythedistributionofresidualoil[11−14],soconfigurationfeaturesofmeanderingpointbarcontrollingresidueoildistributionisthekeytechnologyfortappingoldoilfieldpotential,especiallyforDaqingOilfield.Examiningliteraturesonreservoirconfigurationshowsstudyonthininterbedconfigurationinmonosandstonebodyhasbecomeanimportantresearchdirectionofthereserviorsedi-mentology[8,15−19].Althoughalotofefforthasbeenputintothestudyonpointbarconfiguration,limitedbyavailabledata,therelackofdirectevidencesontypes,origin,developmentanddistributioncharacteristicsofinterbeds.TakingtheCre-taceousYaojiaFormationPutaohuaoillayerPI332sedimen-taryunitofXingbeiarea,thekeyblockofthickoillayerstructureadjustmentinDaqingOilfieldasanexample,basedonthecoredataofhorizontalcoringwellsandverticalwells,YANBaiquanetal./PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,2014,41(5):654–662−655−andloggingdataofdensewellpattern,thespatialcharacteris-ticsofthemeanderpointbarconfigurationandtheresidualoildistributionpatternarefiguredout.1SSpatialdistributionofmonosandstonebodyLocatedinthepureoilregioninthenorthernXingshugangstructureofDaqingOilfield,Xingbeiareaisgentleinstruc-ture.Thereservoirishigherinthesouth,lowerinthenorth,steeperinthenorth,flatterinthesouth.ThedepositionalstageofPI33wasthemaximumregressionperiodofSongliaoBasinintheCretaceous.Lateron,watertransgressionhappened,tothedepositionalperiodofPI1member,theareawasunderdeeplake-semi-deeplake.InthedepositionalperiodofPI332,Xingbeiareawasadeltadistributaryplainwithrichmeanderdistributarychannels,anditssedimentaryfeatureisrepresen-tativeinDaqingOilfield.Byselectingmarkerlayers,standardlayers,referencelayersandstandardwells,thehighresolutionsequencestratigraphicframeworkoftheobjectivelayerinthestudyareaisestablished.Basedontherock-electricitycom-parison,loggingfaciesmodelisestablished;microfaciesisidentifiedwellbywellandlayerbylayer;microfaciesiscombinedontheplane.Finally,theplanemicrofaciesdiagram(Fig.1)ofthesedimentarytimeunitisdrawn[19].FinedissectionofeverysedimentarytimeunitofPImem-bershowsmicrofaciestypesofPI332unitincludedistributarychannel,abandonedchannelandoverbanksand.Distributarychannelsandbodysurroundedbymeanderingringofaban-donedchannelispointbarsedimentarybodyformedbylat-eralaccretion,inwhichthefeatureofthininterbedsconfigu-rationplaysanimportantroleincontrollingtheflowofin-jectedfluidinthedevelopmentprocess,thusitisthemainfactoraffectingtheresidualoiloccurrenceanddistribution.Thecontrollingeffectoflateralaccretioninterbedsonresidualoildistributionhasbeenconfirmedbyphysicalsimulationexperiments[12,19],sofinedissectionofconfigurationfeatureofthininterbedsisofgreatsignificanceforanalyzingthedis-tributionfeatureofresidualoilandtakingcorrespondingmethodsandmeasurestotapthepotential.2AnalysisofpointbarconfigurationPointbarconfigurationreferstotheinternalinterfacelevelofpointbar,configurationelements,lithofaciestypes,andspatialoverlaystyle[1−6].Theinterfacesaredividedinto4lev-els.Thefourthlevelinterfaceisthelateralaccretioninterbedinterface,thekeyincurrentidentification.Configurationele-mentsmainlyincludelateralaccretionbodyandlateralaccre-tioninterbed,whichcanbeidentifiedbydensewellpatterndata.Lithofaciesreferstomainlylithology,grainsize,sedi-mentarystructureandcolorinpointbar.Spatialstackingpat-ternreferstothespatialshapeandarrangementoflateralac-cretioninterbedsorlateralaccretionbody.Thispapermainlylooksintothefeaturesofconfigurationelements,i.e.,tochar-acterizethethree-dimensionaldistributionoflateralaccretionsusingdipangle,inclination,scale,planedistributiondensity,andspatialstackingpattern[19].2.1DipanglecharacteristicsoflateralaccretioninterbedsThereareanumberofmeanstoanalyzeinterfacedipangle,includinganalysismethodofcoreinterbeddipangle,topFig.1LoggingfaciesmodelandsedimentarymicrofaciesofPI332unit(SPüspontaneouspotential;RMNümicropotentialresistivity;RMLümicrogradientresistivity)YANBaiquanetal./PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,2014,41(5):654–662−656−siltingenvelopesurfaceofabandonedchannel,jointanalysisofsmallspacingmultiplewells[5−6,8,19].Thedipangleofthininterbedsinpointbariscomprehensivelyanalyzedbyusingthemethodofsmallspacing(usuallynomorethan50m)coredipangleandthedipanglefeatureoflateralaccretioninter-bedrevealedbyancientoutcropandmodernsedimentation.2.1.1FiguringoutconfigurationinterfacedipanglebysmallwellspacingTherearethreepairsofsmallwellspacingwellsinthepointbararea.Thelineconnectingtheobjectivelayerofeachwellpairisnearlyparallelwithlateralaccretiondirection.Becausethewellspacingbetweenthetwowellsineachpairissmall,theyaremostlikelytodrillthesamelateralaccretionbody,sotheirdatacanbeusedtoworkoutthecorrespondinginterbeddipangle.Becausethedipanglesofalateralaccre-tioninterbedatdifferentpositionsaredifferent,theycannotbeallcalculated,sotheaveragedipangleisusedtocharac-terizethedipangleoftheinterbed.Thespecificalgorithmisasfollows:whentwowellsaredrilledintothesamelateralaccretioninterbed(Fig.2),accordingtothelateralaccretiondirection,thepartdrilledbywell1shouldbethebottomoftheinterbed;thepartdrilledbywell2shouldbethetopoftheinterbed;assumingtheheightdifferenceofthesameinterbedbetweentwowellsish,wellspacingisL,thentheaveragedipangle.oftheinterbedisarctan(h/L);sotheaveragedipan-gleoftheinterbedcanbecalculated.InFig.3,thedistancebetweenWellJ1andJ2is33.2m,theheightdifferenceofsandstonetopbetweenthetwowellsis5.4m,thedipangelecalculatedis9°14;wellspacingbetweenWellJ3andJ4is25.2m,theheightdifferenceofsandstonetopbetweenthetwowellsis3.4m;thedipanglecalculatedis7°41;thewellspacingbetweenWellJ5andJ6is32.3m,theheightdifferenceofsandstonetopbetweenthesetwowellsis5.5m;thedipanglecalculatedis9°39.Dipangleoflateralaccretioninterbedcalculatedbytheabove3pairsofsmallspacingwellsisclosetothatrevealedbymodernsedimentationandancientoutcrop(around10°onaverage),soitisinferredthatthesamelateralaccretionbodyisdrilledbyalltheabovewellsatthesametime[5].2.1.2Calculationofdipangleoflateralaccretioninter-bedswithstraightwellcoringdataInpointbar,thedipangleoflateralaccretioninterbedscanbecalculatedbytheincludedanglebetweenthelateralaccre-tioninterbedandcoreddarkmudstoneofdeeplakeandsemi-deeplakefacieswithhorizontalbeddings,thisway,theeffectofformationinclinationandwelldeviationcanbeavoided.Becausethepositiveornegativeofrotationangleofdrillpipeisuncertain,itsabsolutevalueistakenastheappar-entdipangle.WellJ3inthestudyareaiscored.ThroughcoreobservationandloggingcurvehomingofPI332unit,theap-parentdipangleoftheinterbedsinthetargetlayerwascalcu-lated.Theresults(Fig.4)showthatthedipangleofupperandlowerinterbed(7,;,4.04.3524.02.879>2.00.753>5.02.43102.52.9543.05.3311>3.03.9155.07.49123.00.6264.04.6413>3.04.8575.04.75142.55.94Sincelateralaccretionmudislikelytobewashedbythenextflood,especiallythatatthebottomofchannel,sothelateralaccretionbodywidthformedbythelastfloodislessthanthetheoreticalwidth,thatmeansthelateralaccretionbodywidthcalculatedbyabandonedchannelislessthan42.5m.2.2.2LateralaccretionbodyscaleestimatedbytheinterbedpositionofsmallspacingcoringwellBecauselateralaccretioninterbedsaresmallinsizeandtheyarestronglyaffectedbythedurationofflood,itisdiffi-culttodefineclearlythescaleoflateralaccretioninterbedsundernormaldensityofwellpattern.InFig.3,thedistancebetweenWellJ3andJ4is25.2m,thereisa0.2manda0.3mthickinterbedinthemiddleandupperpartinthetwowellsrespectively,withadipangleof7°41',lithologyanalysisshowstheyarethesameinterbed.Moreover,sincetheinter-bedencounteredinWellJ4isalreadyatthelowerpartofchannel,sothewidthofthelateralaccretionbodyrevealedbythetwowellsshouldbenolessthan25m.2.2.3LateralaccretionbodyscaleestimatedbyhorizontalwellcoreADlengthofJP1coringwellis287mwith14interbedsand13lateralaccretionbodies.Thewidthofeachlateralac-cretionbodyis22monaverage.Becausethesectionoftra-jectoryislocatedatthetopofthepointbarwithrelativelydenseinterbeds,theaveragewidthoflateralaccretionbodiesinthemiddleshouldbemorethan22m.Atthesametime,thissectionofcorerevealsthatthewidthoflateralaccretionbodiesisnotuniform.Thereasonisthatthewidthoflateralaccretionbodyismainlycontrolledbythedurationandsedi-mentaryrateoffloodpeak.Ingeneral,thelateralaccretionbodyisbiginwidthifthefloodpeakhaslongdurationandhighsedimentaryrate.WellX1-X4rowisparallelwiththetrajectoryofhorizontalwellJP1(Fig.1).WellX4showstheloggingcharacteristicsoftypicalabandonedchannel,theother3wellsshowtheloggingcharateristicsofpointbar.Thecal-culateddistance(lateralaccretionbodywidth)ofinterbedsinthehorizontalwellcore,showsthedistanceisthemaximumbetweenNo.10andNo.11lateralaccretioninterbed(Fig.7),upto41.5m;andthedistanceisthesmallestbetweenNo.12andNo.13lateralaccretioninterbed,only6.5m.Basedontheaboveanalysis,theaveragewidthoflateralaccretionbodyinthepointbarshouldbemorethan22m.Ontheplane,thesamelateralaccretionisgenerallylargeinthemiddle,andbecomesgraduallysmallerintheupstreamanddownstream,takingonacrescentshape.2.3InclinationandplanedistributiondensityoflateralaccretioninterbedTheabandonedchannelisthetrajectoryleftbythestopdevelopmentofancientdistributarychannel.Itsbendingcharacteristicscanrevealthedirectionoflateralaccretionintheprocessofchannelmigration,andinturnthelateralaccre-tioninterbeddipofpointbarformedbyaccretioncanbefoundout.Theredevelopedahighlybentabandonedchannelwiththesinuosityindexof1.51inthestudyarea,whichre-vealsclearlythatthedistributarychannelaggradedtotheeast(Fig.8).14interbedsintotalhavebeendrilledinthehorizon-YANBaiquanetal./PetroleumExplorationandDevelopment,2014,41(5):654–662−659−Fig.7InterbedpositioninJP1coringwellFig.8Spatialdistributionoflateralaccretioninterbedstalwellcore,whichgivestheplanedistributiondensityoflateralaccretioninterbedofnolessthan0.11/m(includingnon-coringsection),namelythereisaninterbedevery10m.2.4TThree-dimensionalconfigurationofthininterbedsinmeanderingpointbars2.4.1SpatialconfigurationofsinglelateralaccretioninterbedLithologyoflateralaccretioninterbedofpointbarinthestudyareaisfromsiltymudstonetomudstone.Coresfrombothverticalwellsandhorizontalwellsshowthatthelateralaccretioninterlayersarethin.Accordingtotheaboveanalysis,theinterbedsinthestraightwellcoreare5−25cmthick;theinterbedsinthehorizontalwellcoresare2−5cmthick,sotheinterbedsinthepointbarareabout2−25cmthick.Theinter-beddipangleinthestraightwellcoreis3°−10°,andthedipangleofNo.;andNo.
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