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API 570 管道检测规范

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API570 管道检测
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-1-PipingInspectionCodeInspection,Repair,Alteration,andReratingofIn-ServicePipingSystemsAPI570SecondEdition,October1998ENT000447Submitted:March30,2012UnitedStatesNuclearRegulatoryCommissionOfficialHearingExhibitIntheMatterof:EntergyNuclearOperations,Inc.(IndianPointNuclearGeneratingUnits2and3)ASLBP#:07-858-03-LR-BD01Docket#:05000247|05000286Exhibit#:Identified:Admitted:Withdrawn:Rejected:Stricken:Other:ENT000447-00-BD0110/15/201210/15/2012-2-PipingInspectionCodeInspection,Repair,Alteration,andReratingofIn-ServicePipingSystemsDownstreamSegmentAPI570SecondEdition,October1998-3-FOREWORDItistheintentofAPItokeepthispublicationuptodate.AllpipingsystemownersandoperatorsareinvitedtoreporttheirexperiencesintheinspectionandrepairofpipingsystemswheneversuchexperiencesmaysuggestaneedforrevisingorexpandingthepracticessetforthinAPI570.ThiseditionofAPI570supersedesallpreviouseditionsofAPI570,PipingInspectionCode:Inspection,Repair,Alteration,andReratingofIn-ServicePipingSystems.Eachedition,revision,oraddendatothisAPIstandardmaybeusedbeginningwiththedateofissuanceshownonthecoverpageforthatedition,revision,oraddenda.Eachedition,revision,oraddenda,tothisAPIstandardbecomeseffectivesixmonthsafterthedateofissuanceforequipmentthatisrerated,reconstructed,relocated,repaired,modified(altered),inspected,andtestedperthisstandard.Duringthesix-monthtimebetweenthedateofissuanceoftheedition,revision,oraddendaandtheeffectivedate,theusershallspecifytowhichedition,revision,oraddenda,theequipmentistobe,rerated,reconstructed,relocated,repaired,modified(altered),inspectedandtested.APIpublicationsmaybeusedbyanyonedesiringtodoso.EveryefforthasbeenmadebytheInstitutetoassuretheaccuracyandreliabilityofthedatacontainedinthem;however,theInstitutemakesnorepresentation,warranty,orguaranteeinconnectionwiththispublicationandherebyexpresslydisclaimsanyliabilityorresponsibilityforlossordamageresultingfromitsuseorfortheviolationofanyfederal,state,ormunicipalregulationwithwhichthispublicationmayconflict.SuggestedrevisionsareinvitedandshouldbesubmittedtothedirectoroftheDownstreamSegment,AmericanPetroleumInstitute,1220LStreet,N.W.,Washington,D.C.20005.1Scope1.1GeneralApplication1.1.1CoverageAPI570coversinspection,repair,alteration,andreratingproceduresformetallicpipingsystemsthathavebeenin-service.1.1.2IntentAPI570wasdevelopedforthepetroleumrefiningandchemicalprocessindustriesbutmaybeused,wherepractical,foranypipingsystem.Itisintendedforusebyorganizationsthatmaintainorhaveaccesstoanauthorizedinspectionagency,arepairorganization,andtechnicallyqualifiedpipingengineers,inspectors,andexaminers,allasdefinedinSection3.1.1.3LimitationsAPI570shallnotbeusedasasubstitutefortheoriginalconstructionrequirementsgoverningapipingsystembeforeitisplacedin-service;norshallitbeusedinconflictwithanyprevailingregulatoryrequirements.1.2SpecificApplications1.2.1IncludedFluidServicesExceptasprovidedin1.2.2,API570appliestopipingsystemsforprocessfluids,hydrocarbons,andsimilarflammableortoxicfluidservices,suchasthefollowing:a.Raw,intermediate,andfinishedpetroleumproducts.b.Raw,intermediate,andfinishedchemicalproducts.c.Catalystlines.d.Hydrogen,naturalgas,fuelgas,andflaresystems.-4-e.Sourwaterandhazardouswastestreamsabovethresholdlimits,asdefinedbyjurisdictionalregulations.f.Hazardouschemicalsabovethresholdlimits,asdefinedbyjurisdictionalregulations.1.2.2ExcludedandOptionalPipingSystemsThefluidservicesandclassesofpipingsystemslistedbelowareexcludedfromthespecificrequirementsofAPI570butmaybeincludedattheowner’soruser’s(owner/user’s)option.a.Fluidservicesthatareexcludedoroptionalincludethefollowing:1.Hazardousfluidservicesbelowthresholdlimits,asdefinedbyjurisdictionalregulations.2.Water(includingfireprotectionsystems),steam,steam-condensate,boilerfeedwater,andCategoryDfluidservices,asdefinedinASMEB31.3.b.Classesofpipingsystemsthatareexcludedoroptionalareasfollows:1.Pipingsystemsonmovablestructurescoveredbyjurisdictionalregulations,includingpipingsystemsontrucks,ships,barges,andothermobileequipment.2.Pipingsystemsthatareanintegralpartorcomponentofrotatingorreciprocatingmechanicaldevices,suchaspumps,compressors,turbines,generators,engines,andhydraulicorpneumaticcylinderswheretheprimarydesignconsiderationsand/orstressesarederivedfromthefunctionalrequirementsofthedevice.3.Internalpipingortubingoffiredheatersandboilers,includingtubes,tubeheaders,returnbends,externalcrossovers,andmanifolds.4.Pressurevessels,heaters,furnaces,heatexchangers,andotherfluidhandlingorprocessingequipment,includinginternalpipingandconnectionsforexternalpiping.5.Plumbing,sanitarysewers,processwastesewers,andstormsewers.6.PipingortubingwithanoutsidediameternotexceedingthatofNPS½.7.Nonmetallicpipingandpolymericorglass-linedpiping.2ReferencesThemostrecenteditionsofthefollowingstandards,codes,andspecificationsarecitedinthiscode.API510PressureVesselInspectionCodePubl920PreventionofBrittleFractureofPressureVesselsPubl2201ProceduresforWeldingorHotTappingonEquipmentContainingFlammablesRP574InspectionofPipingSystemComponentsRP651CathodicProtectionofAbovegroundPetroleumStorageTanksRP750ManagementofProcessHazardsStd598ValveInspectionandTestingGuideforInspectionofRefineryEquipment,ChapterII(ThisdocumentwillbereplacedbyAPIRP571,ConditionsCausingDeteriorationorFailures,currentlyunderdevelopment.)API570InspectorCertificationExamBodyofKnowledgeASMEB16.34Valves-Flanged,Threaded,andWeldingEndB31.3ProcessPipingB31GManualforDeterminingtheRemainingStrengthofCorrodedPipelinesBoilerandPressureVesselCode,SectionVIII,Divisions1and2;SectionIX,ASNTSNT-TC-1ACP-189StandardforQualificationandCertificationofNondestructiveTestingPersonnel-5-ASTMG57MethodforFieldMeasurementofSoilResistivityUsingtheWennerFour-ElectrodeMethodNACERP0169ControlofExternalCorrosiononUndergroundorSubmergedMetallicPipingSystemsRP0170ProtectionofAusteniticStainlessSteelsfromPolythionicAcidStressCorrosionCrackingDuringShutdownofRefineryEquipmentRP0274High-VoltageElectricalInspectionofPipelineCoatingsPriortoInstallationRP0275ApplicationofOrganicCoatingstotheExternalSurfaceofSteelPipeforUndergroundServiceNFPA704IdentificationoftheFireHazardsofMaterials3DefinitionsForthepurposesofthisstandard,thefollowingdefinitionsapply.3.1alteration:Aphysicalchangeinanycomponentthathasdesignimplicationsaffectingthepressurecontainingcapabilityorflexibilityofapipingsystembeyondthescopeofitsdesign.Thefollowingarenotconsideredalterations:comparableorduplicatereplacement;theadditionofanyreinforcedbranchconnectionequaltoorlessthanthesizeofexistingreinforcedbranchconnections;andtheadditionofbranchconnectionsnotrequiringreinforcement.3.2applicablecode:Thecode,codesection,orotherrecognizedandgenerallyacceptedengineeringstandardorpracticetowhichthepipingsystemwasbuiltorwhichisdeemedbytheowneroruserorthepipingengineertobemostappropriateforthesituation,includingbutnotlimitedtothelatesteditionofASMEB31.3.3.3ASMEB31.3:AshortenedformofASMEB31.3,ProcessPiping,publishedbytheAmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers.ASMEB31.3iswrittenfordesignandconstructionofpipingsystems.However,mostofthetechnicalrequirementsondesign,welding,examination,andmaterialsalsocanbeappliedintheinspection,rerating,repair,andalterationofoperatingpipingsystems.WhenASMEB31.3cannotbefollowedbecauseofitsnewconstructioncoverage(suchasrevisedornewmaterialspecifications,inspectionrequirements,certainheattreatments,andpressuretests),thepipingengineerorinspectorshallbeguidedbyAPI570inlieuofstrictconformitytoASMEB31.3.Asanexampleofintent,thephrase“principlesofASMEB31.3”hasbeenemployedinAPI570,ratherthan“inaccordancewithASMEB31.3.”3.4authorizedinspectionagency:Definedasanyofthefollowing:a.Theinspectionorganizationofthejurisdictioninwhichthepipingsystemisused.b.Theinspectionorganizationofaninsurancecompanythatislicensedorregisteredtowriteinsuranceforpipingsystems.c.Anowneroruserofpipingsystemswhomaintainsaninspectionorganizationforactivitiesrelatingonlytohisequipmentandnotforpipingsystemsintendedforsaleorresale.d.Anindependentinspectionorganizationemployedbyorundercontracttotheowneroruserofpipingsystemsthatareusedonlybytheowneroruserandnotforsaleorresale.e.Anindependentinspectionorganizationlicensedorrecognizedbythejurisdictioninwhichthepipingsystemisusedandemployedbyorundercontracttotheowneroruser.3.5authorizedpipinginspector:AnemployeeofanauthorizedinspectionagencywhoisqualifiedandcertifiedtoperformthefunctionsspecifiedinAPI570.Anondestructive(NDE)examinerisnotrequiredtobeanauthorizedpipinginspector.WhenevertheterminspectorisusedinAPI570,itreferstoanauthorizedpipinginspector.-6-3.6auxiliarypiping:Instrumentandmachinerypiping,typicallysmall-boresecondaryprocesspipingthatcanbeisolatedfromprimarypipingsystems.Examplesincludeflushlines,sealoillines,analyzerlines,balancelines,buffergaslines,drains,andvents.3.7criticalcheckvalves:Valvesthathavebeenidentifiedasvitaltoprocesssafetyandmustoperatereliablyinordertoavoidthepotentialforhazardouseventsorsubstantialconsequencesshouldaleakoccur.3.8CUI:Corrosionunderinsulation,includingstresscorrosioncrackingunderinsulation.3.9deadlegs:Componentsofapipingsystemthatnormallyhavenosignificantflow.Examplesincludethefollowing:blankedbranches,lineswithnormallyclosedblockvalves,lineswithoneendblanked,pressurizeddummysupportlegs,stagnantcontrolvalvebypasspiping,sparepumppiping,levelbridles,reliefvalveinletandoutletheaderpiping,pumptrimbypasslines,high-pointvents,samplepoints,drains,bleeders,andinstrumentconnections.3.10defect:Animperfectionofatypeormagnitudeexceedingtheacceptablecriteria.3.11designtemperatureofapipingsystemcomponent:Thetemperatureatwhich,underthecoincidentpressure,thegreatestthicknessorhighestcomponentratingisrequired.ItisthesameasthedesigntemperaturedefinedinASMEB31.3andothercodesectionsandissubjecttothesamerulesrelatingtoallowancesforvariationsofpressureortemperatureorboth.Differentcomponentsinthesamepipingsystemorcircuitmayhavedifferentdesigntemperatures.Inestablishingthedesigntemperature,considerationshallbegiventoprocessfluidtemperatures,ambienttemperatures,heatingandcoolingmediatemperatures,andinsulation.3.12examiner:Apersonwhoassiststheinspectorbyperformingspecificnondestructiveexamination(NDE)onpipingsystemcomponentsbutdoesnotevaluatetheresultsofthoseexaminationsinaccordancewithAPI570,unlessspecificallytrainedandauthorizedtodosobytheowneroruser.TheexaminerneednotbequalifiedinaccordancewithAPI570orbeanemployeeoftheowneroruserbutshallbetrainedandqualifiedintheapplicableproceduresinwhichtheexaminerisinvolved.Insomecases,theexaminermayberequiredtoholdothercertificationsasnecessarytosatisfyowneroruserrequirements.ExamplesofothercertificationthatmayberequiredareSNT-TC-1AorCP-189;orAWSWeldingInspectorcertification.Theexaminer’semployershallmaintaincertificationrecordsoftheexaminersemployed,includingdatesandresultsofpersonnelqualifications,andshallmakethemavailabletotheinspector.3.13holdpoint:Apointintherepairoralterationprocessbeyondwhichworkmaynotproceeduntiltherequiredinspectionhasbeenperformedanddocumented.3.14imperfections:Flawsorotherdiscontinuitiesnotedduringinspectionthatmaybesubjecttoacceptancecriteriaduringanengineeringandinspectionanalysis.3.15indication:Aresponseorevidenceresultingfromtheapplicationofanondestructiveevaluationtechnique.3.16injectionpoint:Locationswhererelativelysmallquantitiesofmaterialsareinjectedintoprocessstreamstocontrolchemistryorotherprocessvariables.Injectionpointsdonotincludelocationswheretwoprocessstreamsjoin(mixingtees).Examplesofinjectionpointsincludechlorineinreformers,waterinjectioninoverheadsystems,polysulfideinjectionincatalyticcrackingwetgas,antifoaminjections,inhibitors,andneutralizers.3.17in-service:Referstopipingsystemsthathavebeenplacedinoperation,asopposedtonewconstructionpriortobeingplacedinservice.3.18inspector:Anauthorizedpipinginspector.3.19jurisdiction:Alegallyconstitutedgovernmentadministrationthatmayadoptrulesrelatingtopipingsystems.3.20levelbridle:Alevelgaugeglasspipingassemblyattachedtoavessel.3.21maximumallowableworkingpressure:(MAWP):Themaximuminternalpressurepermittedinthepipingsystemforcontinuedoperationatthemostsevereconditionofcoincidentinternalorexternalpressureandtemperature(minimumormaximum)expectedduringservice.Itisthesameasthedesignpressure,asdefinedinASMEB31.3andothercodesections,andissubjecttothesamerulesrelatingtoallowancesforvariationsofpressureortemperatureorboth.-7-3.22mixingtee:Apipingcomponentthatcombinestwoprocessstreamsofdifferingcompositionand/ortemperature.3.23MT:Magnetic-particletesting.3.24NDE:Nondestructiveexamination.3.25NPS:Nominalpipesize(followed,whenappropriate,bythespecificsizedesignationnumberwithoutaninchsymbol).3.26on-stream:Pipingcontaininganyamountofprocessfluid.3.27owner/user:Anowneroruserofpipingsystemswhoexercisescontrolovertheoperation,engineering,inspection,repair,alteration,testing,andreratingofthosepipingsystems.3.28owner/userinspector:Anauthorizedinspectoremployedbyanowner/userwhohasqualifiedeitherbywrittenexaminationundertheprovisionsofSection4andAppendixAofAPI570orhasqualifiedundertheprovisionsofA.2,andwhomeetstherequirementsofthejurisdiction.3.29PT:Aliquid-penetranttesting.3.30pipe:Apressure-tightcylinderusedtoconveyafluidortotransmitafluidpressureandisordinarilydesignated“pipe”inapplicablematerialspecifications.(Materialsdesignated“tube”or“tubing”inthespecificationsaretreatedaspipewhenintendedforpressureservice.)3.31pipingcircuit:Asectionofpipingthathasallpointsexposedtoanenvironmentofsimilarcorrosivityandthatisofsimilardesignconditionsandconstructionmaterial.Complexprocessunitsorpipingsystemsaredividedintopipingcircuitstomanagethenecessaryinspections,calculations,andrecordkeeping.Whenestablishingtheboundaryofaparticularpipingcircuit,theinspectormayalsosizeittoprovideapracticalpackageforrecordkeepingandperformingfieldinspection.3.32pipingengineer:Oneormorepersonsororganizationsacceptabletotheowneroruserwhoareknowledgeableandexperiencedintheengineeringdisciplinesassociatedwithevaluatingmechanicalandmaterialcharacteristicsaffectingtheintegrityandreliabilityofpipingcomponentsandsystems.Thepipingengineer,byconsultingwithappropriatespecialists,shouldberegardedasacompositeofallentitiesnecessarytoproperlyaddressatechnicalrequirement.3.33pipingsystem:Anassemblyofinterconnectedpipingthatissubjecttothesamesetorsetsofdesignconditionsandisusedtoconvey,distribute,mix,separate,discharge,meter,control,orsnubfluidflows.Pipingsystemalsoincludespipe-supportingelementsbutdoesnotincludesupportstructures,suchasstructuralframesandfoundations.3.34primaryprocesspiping:Processpipinginnormal,activeservicethatcannotbevalvedoffor,ifitwerevalvedoff,wouldsignificantlyaffectunitoperability.PrimaryprocesspipingnormallyincludesallprocesspipinggreaterthanNPS2.3.35PWHT:postweldheattreatment.3.36renewal:Activitythatdiscardsanexistingcomponentandreplacesitwithneworexistingsparematerialsofthesameorbetterqualitiesastheoriginalcomponent.3.37repair:Theworknecessarytorestoreapipingsystemtoaconditionsuitableforsafeoperationatthedesignconditions.Ifanyoftherestorativechangesresultinachangeofdesigntemperatureorpressure,therequir
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