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岩石学薄片鉴定

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Metamorphic TexturesTextures of Regional Metamorphism,Dynamothermal (crystallization under dynamic conditions)Orogeny- long-term mountain-buildingMay comprise several Tectonic EventsMay have several Deformational PhasesMay have an accompanying Metamorphic Cycles with one or more Reaction Events,Metamorphic TexturesTextures of Regional Metamorphism,Tectonite- a deformed rock with a texture that records the deformationFabric- the complete spatial and geometric configuration of textural elementsFoliation- planar textural elementLineation- linear textural elementLattice Preferred Orientation (LPO)Dimensional Preferred Orientation (DPO),Progressive syntectonic metamorphism of a volcanic graywacke, New Zealand. From Best (1982). Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. W. H. Freeman. San Francisco.,Progressive syntectonic metamorphism of a volcanic graywacke, New Zealand. From Best (1982). Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. W. H. Freeman. San Francisco.,Progressive syntectonic metamorphism of a volcanic graywacke, New Zealand. From Best (1982). Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. W. H. Freeman. San Francisco.,Progressive syntectonic metamorphism of a volcanic graywacke, New Zealand. From Best (1982). Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. W. H. Freeman. San Francisco.,Fig 23-21 Types of foliationsa. Compositional layeringb. Preferred orientation of platy mineralsc. Shape of deformed grainsd. Grain size variatione. Preferred orientation of platy minerals in a matrix without preferred orientationf. Preferred orientation of lenticular mineral aggregatesg. Preferred orientation of fracturesh. Combinations of the above,,Figure 23-21. Types of fabric elements that may define a foliation. From Turner and Weiss (1963) and Passchier and Trouw (1996).,,Figure 23-22. A morphological (non-genetic) classification of foliations. After Powell (1979) Tectonophys., 58, 21-34; Borradaile et al. (1982) Atlas of Deformational and Metamorphic Rock Fabrics. Springer-Verlag; and Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag.,,Figure 23-22. (continued),Figure 23-23. Continuous schistosity developed by dynamic recrystallization of biotite, muscovite, and quartz. a. Plane-polarized light, width of field 1 mm. b. Crossed-polars, width of field 2 mm. Although there is a definite foliation in both samples, the minerals are entirely strain-free.,a,b,Progressive development (a  c) of a crenulation cleavage for both asymmetric (top) and symmetric (bottom) situations. From Spry (1969) Metamorphic Textures. Pergamon. Oxford.,Figure 23-24a. Symmetrical crenulation cleavages in amphibole-quartz-rich schist. Note concentration of quartz in hinge areas. From Borradaile et al. (1982) Atlas of Deformational and Metamorphic Rock Fabrics. Springer-Verlag.,Figure 23-24b. Asymmetric crenulation cleavages in mica-quartz-rich schist. Note horizontal compositional layering (relict bedding) and preferential dissolution of quartz from one limb of the folds. From Borradaile et al. (1982) Atlas of Deformational and Metamorphic Rock Fabrics. Springer-Verlag.,Development of S2 micas depends upon T and the intensity of the second deformation,Figure 23-25. Stages in the development of crenulation cleavage as a function of temperature and intensity of the second deformation. From Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag.,Types of lineationsa. Preferred orientation of elongated mineral aggregatesb. Preferred orientation of elongate mineralsc. Lineation defined by platy mineralsd. Fold axes (especially of crenulations)e. Intersecting planar elements.,Figure 23-26. Types of fabric elements that define a lineation. From Turner and Weiss (1963) Structural Analysis of Metamorphic Tectonites. McGraw Hill.,Figure 23-27. Proposed mechanisms for the development of foliations. After Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag.,Figure 23-28. Development of foliation by simple shear and pure shear (flattening). After Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag.,Development of an axial-planar cleavage in folded metasediments. Circular images are microscopic views showing that the axial-planar cleavage is a crenulation cleavage, and is developed preferentially in the micaceous layers. From Gilluly, Waters and Woodford (1959) Principles of Geology, W.H. Freeman; and Best (1982). Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. W. H. Freeman. San Francisco.,Diagram showing that structural and fabric elements are generally consistent in style and orientation at all scales. From Best (1982). Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. W. H. Freeman. San Francisco.,Pre-kinematic crystalsBent crystal with undulose extinctionFoliation wrapped around a porphyroblastPressure shadow or fringeKink bands or foldsMicroboudinageDeformation twins,Figure 23-34. Typical textures of pre-kinematic crystals. From Spry (1969) Metamorphic Textures. Pergamon. Oxford.,Post-kinematic crystalsHelicitic folds b. Randomly oriented crystals c. Polygonal arcs d. Chiastolite e. Late, inclusion-free rim on a poikiloblast (?) f. Random aggregate pseudomorph,Figure 23-35. Typical textures of post-kinematic crystals. From Spry (1969) Metamorphic Textures. Pergamon. Oxford.,Syn-kinematic crystalsParacrystalline microboudinageSpiral Porphyroblast,Figure 23-36. Syn-crystallization micro-boudinage. Syn-kinematic crystal growth can be demonstrated by the color zoning that grows and progressively fills the gap between the separating fragments. After Misch (1969) Amer. J. Sci., 267, 43-63.,Figure 23-38. Traditional interpretation of spiral Si train in which a porphyroblast is rotated by shear as it grows. From Spry (1969) Metamorphic Textures. Pergamon. Oxford.,Syn-kinematic crystals,Figure 23-38. Spiral Si train in garnet, Connemara, Ireland. Magnification ~20X. From Yardley et al. (1990) Atlas of Metamorphic Rocks and their Textures. Longmans.,,Syn-kinematic crystals,Figure 23-40. Non-uniform distribution of shear strain as proposed by Bell et al. (1986) J. Metam. Geol., 4, 37-67. Blank areas represent high shear strain and colored areas are low-strain. Lines represent initially horizontal inert markers (S1). Note example of porphyroblast growing preferentially in low-strain regions.,Syn-kinematic crystals,Figure 23-38. “Snowball garnet” with highly rotated spiral Si. Porphyroblast is ~ 5 mm in diameter. From Yardley et al. (1990) Atlas of Metamorphic Rocks and their Textures. Longmans.,Figure 23-37. Si characteristics of clearly pre-, syn-, and post-kinematic crystals as proposed by Zwart (1962). a. Progressively flattened Si from core to rim. b. Progressively more intense folding of Si from core to rim. c. Spiraled Si due to rotation of the matrix or the porphyroblast during growth. After Zwart (1962) Geol. Rundschau, 52, 38-65.,Analysis of Deformed Rocks,Deformational events: D1 D2 D3 …Metamorphic events: M1 M2 M3 …Foliations: So S1 S2 S3 …Lineations: Lo L1 L2 L3 …Plot on a metamorphism-deformation-time plot showing the crystallization of each mineral,Analysis of Deformed Rocks,Figure 23-42. (left) Asymmetric crenulation cleavage (S2) developed over S1 cleavage. S2 is folded, as can be seen in the dark sub-vertical S2 bands. Field width ~ 2 mm. Right: sequential analysis of the development of the textures. From Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag.,Analysis of Deformed Rocks,Figure 23-43. Graphical analysis of the relationships between deformation (D), metamorphism (M), mineral growth, and textures in the rock illustrated in Figure 23-42. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.,Figure 23-44. Composite sketch of some common textures in Pikikiruna Schist, N.Z. Garnet diameter is ~ 1.5 mm. From Shelley (1993) Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks Under the Microscope. Chapman and Hall.,Analysis of Deformed Rocks,Figure 23-45. Graphical analysis of the relationships between deformation (D), metamorphism (M), mineral growth, and textures in the rock illustrated in Figure 23-44. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.,Figure 23-46. Textures in a hypothetical andalusite porphyryoblast-mica schist. After Bard (1986) Microtextures of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks. Reidel. Dordrecht.,Figure 23-47. Graphical analysis of the relationships between deformation (D), metamorphism (M), mineral growth, and textures in the rock illustrated in Figure 23-46. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.,Figure 23-48a. Interpreted sequential development of a polymetamorphic rock. From Spry (1969) Metamorphic Textures. Pergamon. Oxford.,Figure 23-48b. Interpreted sequential development of a polymetamorphic rock. From Spry (1969) Metamorphic Textures. Pergamon. Oxford.,Figure 23-48c. Interpreted sequential development of a polymetamorphic rock. From Spry (1969) Metamorphic Textures. Pergamon. Oxford.,From Yardley (1989) An Introduction to Metamorphic Petrology. Longman.,Post-kinematic: Si is identical to and continuous with Se,Pre-kinematic: Porphyroblasts are post-S2. Si is inherited from an earlier deformation. Se is compressed about the porphyroblast in (c) and a pressure shadow develops.,Syn-kinematic: Rotational porphyroblasts in which Si is continuous with Se suggesting that deformation did not outlast porphyroblast growth.,Deformation may not be of the same style or even coeval throughout an orogen,Stage I: D1 in forearc (A) migrates away from the arc over time. Area (B) may have some deformation associated with pluton emplacement, area (C) has no deformation at all,Figure 23-49. Hypothetical development of an orogenic belt involving development and eventual accretion of a volcanic island arc terrane. After Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag.,Deformation may not be of the same style or even coeval throughout an orogen,Stage II: D2 overprints D1 in forearc (A) in the form of sub-horizontal folding and back-thrusting as pushed against arc crust. Area (C) begins new subduction zone with thrusting and folding migrating toward trench.,Figure 23-49. Hypothetical development of an orogenic belt involving development and eventual accretion of a volcanic island arc terrane. After Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag.,Deformation may not be of the same style or even coeval throughout an orogen,Stage III: Accretion deforms whole package. More resistant arc crust gets a D1 event. D2 overprints D1 in forearc (A) and in pluton-emplacement structures in (B). Area (C) in the suture zone gets D3 overprinting D2 recumbent folds on D1 foliations.,Figure 23-49. Hypothetical development of an orogenic belt involving development and eventual accretion of a volcanic island arc terrane. After Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag.,Deformation may not be of the same style or even coeval throughout an orogen,The orogen as it may now appear following uplift and erosion.,Figure 23-49. Hypothetical development of an orogenic belt involving development and eventual accretion of a volcanic island arc terrane. After Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag.,Figure 23-53. Reaction rims and coronas. From Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag.,Figure 23-54. Portion of a multiple coronite developed as concentric rims due to reaction at what was initially the contact between an olivine megacryst and surrounding plagioclase in anorthosites of the upper Jotun Nappe, W. Norway. From Griffen (1971) J. Petrol., 12, 219-243.,Photomicrograph of multiple reaction rims between olivine (green, left) and plagioclase (right).,Coronites in outcrop. Cores of orthopyroxene (brown) with successive rims of clinopyroxene (dark green) and garnet (red) in an anorthositic matrix. Austrheim, Norway.,Figures not used,Figure 23-2. a. Migration of a vacancy in a familiar game. b. Plastic horizontal shortening of a crystal by vacancy migration. From Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag. Berlin.,Figures not used,Figure 23-3. Plastic deformation of a crystal lattice (experiencing dextral shear) by the migration of an edge dislocation (as viewed down the axis of the dislocation).,Figures not used,Figure 23-16a. Large polygonized quartz crystals with undulose extinction and subgrains that show sutured grain boundaries caused by recrystallization. Compare to Figure 23-15b, in which little, if any, recrystallization has occurred. From Urai et al. (1986) Dynamic recrystallization of minerals. In B. E. Hobbs and H. C. Heard (eds.), Mineral and Rock Deformation: Laboratory Studies. Geophysical Monograph 36. AGU.,Figures not used,Figure 23-29. Deformed quartzite in which elongated quartz crystals following shear, recovery, and recrystallization. Note the broad and rounded suturing due to coalescence. Field width ~ 1 cm. From Spry (1969) Metamorphic Textures. Pergamon. Oxford.,Figures not used,Figure 23-32. Pelitic schist with three s-surfaces. S0 is the compositional layering (bedding) evident as the quartz-rich (left) half and mica-rich (right) half. S1 (subvertical) is a continuous slaty cleavage. S2 (subhorizontal) is a later crenulation cleavage. Field width ~4 mm. From Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag.,Figures not used,Figure 23-33. Illustration of an Al2SiO5 poikiloblast that consumes more muscovite than quartz, thus inheriting quartz (and opaque) inclusions. The nature of the quartz inclusions can be related directly to individual bedding substructures. Note that some quartz is consumed by the reaction, and that quartz grains are invariably rounded. From Passchier and Trouw (1996) Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag.,
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