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当前石油管道焊接技术介绍

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当前 石油 管道 焊接 技术 介绍
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Lincoln Electric’s focus on the pipeline industryScott Funderburk, P.E.Global Business Director – Pipelines5thInternational Pipeline ConferenceLang Fang, ChinaOctober 17, 2008Outline•GlobalPipeline Market Overview•WeldingProcess Selection•LincolnElectricSolutionsEquipment & ConsumablesOutline•GlobalPipeline arket Overview•eldingProcess Selection•LincolnElectricSolutionsEquipment & ConsuablesEnergy Consumption per Capita• 1/3 of the world has reliable electricity• 1/3 has unreliable electricity• 1/3 has NO electricitySource: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2008August 2008FUTURE PIPELINE PROJECTS (Simdex May 2008)010,00020,00030,00040,00050,00060,00070,00080,00090,000100,000NorthAmericaLatinAmericaEuropeAfricaMiddle EastAsiaAustralasialength(km)Length of Projects Starting each Year010,00020,00030,00040,00050,00060,00070,0002004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009Length (miles)440% overall growthCAGR = 33%Today’s average pipeline project (world-wide)• Diameter: 36”• Length: 329 mi (529 km)• Total Cost: $3.1 MM/mile ($1.9 MM/km)• Welding Cost:– Field welding consumables $5,000/mile ($3,400/km)0.15% of total cost– Pipe mill consumables $8,000/mile($5,000/km)• Diameter: 36”• Length: 329 mi (529 km)• Total Cost: $3.1 MM/mile ($1.9 MM/km)• elding Cost:– Field welding consumables $5,000/mile ($3,400/km)0.15% of total cost– Pipe mill consumables $8,000/mile($5,000/km)Outline•GlobalPipeline Market Overview•WeldingProcess Selection•LincolnElectricSolutionsEquipment & ConsumablesOutline•GlobalPipeline arket Overview•eldingProcess Selection•LincolnElectricSolutionsEquipment & ConsuablesApplication Requirements• Productivity (how many joints per day are required?)• Repeatable quality, with minimum defects• Robust weld properties • Consumables must be selected for project requirements• Robust equipment is a must• Reasonable lead times• Technical support before and during constructionRoot Pass Options1. Cellulosic SMAW †widely used, but fading due to higher grade steels2. Cellulosic SMAW …Tie ins, due to bad joint fit up 3. Semi-Automatic STTlow cost option, good for poor fit up and low hydrogen4. Automatic STTused successfully, but sensitive to root opening tolerances5. Copper shoeno gap, special joint prep, not allowed in some countries6. Internal root welderspecial joint prep, very expensive Welding Processes CelluloseFill Pass Options1. Cellulosic SMAW Still widely used, not for higher grade pipes2. LH-D SMAWUsed for heavy wall materials, compressor stations & road crossings 3. Semi-automatic FCAW (gas or self-shield) 4. Automatic FCAW-G …Slower than automatic GMAW, successful with low defect rates5. Automatic GMAW †(Single arc, single or dual torch, narrow groove) 6. Automatic Tandem MIG (single or dual tandem, not yet well proven)Welding Processes The Economics of Pipeline Field Girth WeldingIncreasing Pipe Strength(480 MPa)(550 MPa)(690 MPa)(830 MPa)Material Savings with Higher StrengthHydrogen Cracking• Higher strength materials• Proper preheat required• Low hydrogen electrodes• Control exposure of electrodes• Minimize sources of moistureBreakdown of Welding CostsIs this the most economic way to weld a pipeline today?Welding Process SelectionManual Semi Automatic AutomaticFCAWGMAW FCAW Gas-shieldedCellulosic Low HydrogenGMAW Narrow GapVertical-UpVertical-DownSelf-shieldedGas-shieldedConsiderations• Location• Climate• Terrain• LaborManual Welding• Simple and Portable• Welding Power Source– Diesel or gas generator– Transformer rectifier– Inverter• Electrodes– Cellulosic– Low Hydrogen Vertical-up– Low Hydrogen Vertical-downCellulosic SMAW• E6010, E7010, E8010• Excellent penetration• High diffusible hydrogen (~40 ml/100g)• Limited to X70 and certain thin wall X80 applications• High preheat temp required to prevent crackingLow Hydrogen SMAW• Low hydrogen (~4 ml/100g)• High strength & toughness• Up to X100• Exx18 Vertical-up– Pipeliner 16P, 17P, 18P, 19P, 20P – smaller electrodes (3.2 mm)– Handles poor fit-up• Exx45-P2 Vertical-down– LH-D 80, LH-D 90, LH-D 100– Larger electrodes (4.0 mm)– Higher productivityManual SMAW Difficult TerrainSemi-automatic Welding• GMAW– Vertical-down open root pass• FCAW-S (Self-shielded)– Vertical-down fill passes• FCAW-G (Gas-shielded)– Vertical-Up fill passesSTT ProcessOpen Root Welding With STTSTT ProcessSpooling Operation(two operators)Open Root Welding With STTMechanized GMAW on 60” X70 in Saudi Arabia: Flat easy terrainFCAW-S•Simplest Wire Solution• Vertical-down fill passes• Productivity Driven Solution– Continuous process– No Stub Loss• No Gas Shielding• Up to X70 & X80Innershield®Semi-automatic Innershield®for Fill & Cap WeldingSemi-automatic Innershield®for Fill & Cap WeldingLN-23P Wire FeederPipeliner®NR-207+NR-208P, NR-208XPPrimaCore SW-88PFCAW-S Difficult Terrain(40” X70) Peru LNG• September 2008•X70• NR-207+, NR-208XP• LH-D80•LN-23P• DC-400FCAW-G (Gas-shielded)• Vertical-up fill passes• Argon/CO2shielding gas– Gas bottles– Tenting• Improved toughness• Up to X100 strengthSemi-automatic FCAW-G for Fill Pass WeldingSemiautomatic FCAW-G on X80 Cheyenne Plains - USAMechanized•FCAW-GStandard bevelVertical-up•GMAWNarrow grooveVertical-downProcess Selectionrelated to…• Joint design • Welder skill• Current equipment & budget• Location, climate, terrain Outline•GlobalPipeline Market Overview•WeldingProcess Selection•LincolnElectricSolutionsEquipment & ConsumablesOutline•GlobalPipeline arket Overview•eldingProcess Selection•LincolnElectricSolutionsEquipment & ConsuablesManualConsumablesLow HydrogenLHD 80/90/100PL 16P, 17P, 18P, 19P, 20PConarc 70GKryo 1PCellulosicPL 6P+, 7P+, 8P+FW 5P, 5P+Shield Arc 70+Shield Arc HYP+Shield Arc 80EquipmentV350ProDC-400SAE-400Vantage 400/500Classic 300DPipeliner 200DMechanizedRootGMAWPL 70S-GPL 80S-GLA-100EquipmentSTT IISemi or AutoFill/CapFCAW-GAW G70MG80MG90MPower SourceV350 ProPower Wave 455M/STTBugBug-O PiperSemi-AutoConsumablesFCAW-SNR-207+NR-208PNR-208XPNR-208HSW-88P *EquipmentPower SourceV350ProDC-400Vantage 400/500Wire FeedersLN-15LN-25 ProLN-23PLF-37FCAW-GPL G70MPL G80MPL G90MOS 690-HSR OS 91Ni HSROS 91K2 HSR*) China onlySMAW AWS Class6P+ E60107P+ E7010-P18P+ E8010-P1LH-D80 E8045-P2-H4RLH-D90 E9045-P2-H4RLH-D100 E10045-P2-H4R16P E7016 H417P E7018-1 H4R18P E8018-G H4R19P E10018-H4R20P E12018-G H4RE91T-8NR-208HGMAW AWS Class70S-G ER70S-G80S-G ER80S-GFCAW-GG70M E71T-1,-9 MJH8G80M E101T1-G MH8G90M E111T1-K3 MJH4FCAW-SNR-207+ E71T8-K6NR-208P E81T8-GNR-208XP E81T8-GPIPER-BUGAUTOMATED HEIGHT CONTROLSPOOL HOLDERWIRE FEEDERQUICK RELEASE CLUTCHESTECHNICAL DATA• Linear Speed up to 2 m/min (80 IPM)• Weave Speed up to 2.5 m/min (100 IPM)• Wire Feed Speed up to 11.4 m/min (450 IPM)• Cross Travel (Weave + Steering) up to 152 mm (6 in.)• Net Weight 15 kg (35 lb.) (without spool)FEATURES• COMPACT TRACTOR – LOW PROFILE• ON-BOARD 10-LB WIRE SPOOL• AUTOMATED HEIGHT CONTROL• QUICK RELEASE DRIVE PINION• FITS SS FLEX & BENT RIGID RAIL• INDEPENDENT DWELL TIMERSRAIL • FITS BRR and SS FLEX RAIL• QUICK RELEASE RAILPIPER – FEATURES• SPLIT CONTROLS – PANEL AND PENDANT• ADMINISTRATOR / USER INTERFACES• COMPACT FLASH COMPATIBLE• SINGLE PUSH BUTTON STOP/START • PANEL MOUNTED E-STOP, PENDANT QUICK STOP• FLOW DETECTION FOR SHIELDING GAS AND COOLING WATER• INTELLIGENT MOTORS• CALIBRATED, DIGITAL CONTROL, DISCRETE VALUES• MULTI-LINGUAL USER INTERFACE AT PANELCONTROL PANELLARGE CONTROL PENDANTA – SELECT PASSB – RAISE/LOWER GUNC – COLD INCH WIRED – WEAVE / LINEARE – TRACTOR DIRECTIONF – INCR/DECR AMPSG – WIRE FEED SPEEDH – INCR/DECR VOLTSI – TRACTOR SPEEDJ – LEFT DWELLK – RIGHT DWELLL – WEAVE WIDTHM – WEAVE SPEEDN – STARTO – STOPP – QUICK STOPQ – TORCH STEERINGSMALL CONTROL PENDANTA – RAISE / LOWER TIPB – COLD INCH WIREC – WEAVE / LINEARD – TRACTOR DIRECTIONE – INCR / DECR AMPSF – WIRE FEED SPEEDG – INCR / DECR VOLTSH – TRACTOR SPEEDI – STARTJ – STOPK – QUICK STOPL – STEERINGLincoln Electric Global Pipeline Team29 Lincoln Electric employees, 2 weeks dedicated training on serving the Pipeline industry (June 2008)
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