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稠油污水回用锅炉处理工艺的应用_徐文钢

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油污 水回用 锅炉 处理 工艺 应用 徐文钢
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doi:10.3969/j.issn.1005-3158.2012.03.011稠油污水回用锅炉处理工艺的应用徐文钢李远亮杜雪峰宋 伟史新云(中国石油新疆油田公司采油一厂)摘要新疆油田公司稠油污水处理普遍采用成熟的离子调整旋流反应水处理技术,污水处理后达到回用锅炉水质标准SY/T 0097-2000《稠油油田采出水用于蒸汽发生器给水处理设计规范》,供给油田专用高压注汽锅炉用水。采用相同技术建成的采油一厂稠油处理站污水回用锅炉处理工艺投用后,处理后污水回用锅炉,减少了含油污水的外排,充分利用了稠油污水的热能,取得了良好的经济和社会效益。关键词重力除油;离子调整;旋流反应罐;负压排泥中图分类号:X741文献标识码:A文章编号:1005-3158(2012)03-0037-030 引言新疆油田公司稠油开发普遍采用注汽吞吐开采方式,注汽锅炉为油田专用湿蒸汽发生器,高压锅炉供给水为软化后的清水,而原油处理后的污水经过处理达到GB 8978-1996《污水综合排放标准》后排入固定蒸发池。随着环境保护和节能意识逐步提高,新疆油田公司经过考察和论证,决定将稠油开采过程产生的污水经过处理和软化,达到锅炉用水标准SY/T0097-2000《稠油油田采出水用于蒸汽发生器给水处理设计规范》供给注汽锅炉使用,使稠油开采过程形成良好的水资源循环,实现含油污水零外排的目标,同时还利用稠油产出污水水温高的条件,降低锅炉用水升温能耗,达到节能减排的目的。2001年投用的新疆油田公司重油开发公司于六九区污水处理站首次采用离子调整旋流反应水处理技术,处理后含油污水达到了高压锅炉用水要求,污水处理工艺运行平稳。随后新疆油田公司对所属的各区稠油污水处理站均采用离子调整旋流反应水处理技术,有效减少了稠油污水的外排量。2009年新疆油田公司对采油一厂稠油处理站的污水处理工艺系统进行改建,力争两年内实现含油污水零排放目标。采油一厂稠油处理站功能为原油处理和污水处理,产生外排的污染物主要有三项:①仅处理后达到GB 8978-1996《污水综合排放标准》的含油污水;②沉降罐负压排泥产生的高含油污水、污泥;③净化油罐清罐产生的罐底高含油污水、污泥。此次改造不仅要解决含油污水再利用的问题,还须解决高含油污水、污泥的处理、回收问题。1 离子调整旋流反应水处理技术及配套工艺1.1离子调整旋流反应水处理技术离子调整旋流反应水处理技术[1]采用化学和物理方法相结合的方式,降低污水中原油和机械杂质的含量,调整污水pH值为7~8。污水处理及回用锅炉主要工艺流程见图1。图1污水处理及回用锅炉主要工艺流程重力除油部分是在含油污水进重力除油罐前投加反相破乳剂,利用油水密度差进行自然分离,脱出原油回收至原油处理系统。旋流反应部分为主工艺的核心部分,低含油污水提升进旋流反应罐,同时投加混凝剂、助沉剂、絮凝剂,利用水流碰壁旋转与药剂充分混合反应,使污水中的油、机械杂质反应结合,形徐文钢,1998年毕业于中国科学院成都分院,现在中国石油新疆油田公司采油一厂安全环保科从事安全环保技术与管理工作。通信地址:新疆克拉玛依市胜利路43号,834000·73·油气田环境保护2012年6月ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF OIL &GAS FIELDS     Vol.22 No.3 成比水重的絮团下沉,反应后污水进入混凝沉降部分,混凝沉降部分是通过拦截、自然下沉作用进一步去除污水中的油和机械杂质。压力过滤部分是通过吸附、拦截作用进一步去除污水中的油、机械杂质。达到要求后的污水进入水质软化部分,在钠离子交换装置的作用下,污水达到回用高压锅炉要求后通过提升外输部分供给高压锅炉。1.2配套工艺技术1.2.1储罐负压排泥技术污水处理时加入了多种化学药剂,使污泥的产生和沉积更容易,导致储罐泥沙沉积日趋严重,降低了储罐的有效利用率,因此需要定期清理。目前常用的人工清理、自然排泥、高压射流大罐排泥方式均存在一定的局限性[2],为此,原油、污水处理系统各沉降罐采用负压排泥技术。其原理是利用外界的高压液体通过混合管时产生的负压将污泥吸起,并与高压液体一同排出罐外。即当高压流体经过混合管时,由于混合管直径较供水线的要小得多,流液将产生节流,使流体流速增大,压力降低,从而在混合管产生一个低压区,罐底污泥在压差作用下不断涌入低压区,被高速流动的流体抽吸进排泥管排出。1.2.2过滤器反冲洗水回收系统过滤器反冲洗过程包括气洗和水洗两过程[3]。过滤器反冲洗排出物全部排至污泥浓缩池,回收水进入生产工艺,通过在用同类工艺调研,发现大部分反洗后的排出水水质较好,达到混凝沉降罐的进水要求,该部分水可以不需要再次提升和加药处理,直接进混凝沉降罐。根据此情况,红浅稠油处理站污水处理系统改建时,在一级、二级过滤器总反冲洗管线出口上安装电动三通阀,根据一级、二级过滤器水洗反冲洗时间,设定电动三通阀的动作时间,使反冲洗水进污泥浓缩池,后进2 000m3混凝沉降罐,降低了系统电力能耗和处理成本。1.2.3含油污泥处理工艺技术红浅稠油处理站的含油污水、污泥由两部分组成,一部分为数量较少的低含油污水、污泥,由污水处理系统反应罐、混凝沉降罐负压排泥和过滤器反洗所产生;一部分为数量较多的高含油污水、污泥,由原油处理系统各沉降罐、污水处理系统重力除油罐、调储罐负压排泥和净化油罐清罐所产生。红浅稠油处理站污水处理工艺原设计中,全部污泥通过卧式螺旋离心机处理[4],但根据前期调研,当污泥中含油超过2%时,会造成离心机故障率高,运行效率下降,大部分高含油污泥无法处理,只能拉运倾倒至固定场所。为彻底解决高含油污泥和采油废液无法处理的现象,采用了含油污泥、污水分开处理的方法,高含油污水、污泥经负压排泥后,进污泥沉降池,上层污水回收经提升泵进重力沉降罐处理,下层含油污泥经过自然干化后回收运至污泥处理厂进行焚烧处理,同时采油产生的废液可以倾倒入站外污泥沉降池,低含油污水、污泥排放至站内污泥浓缩池,上清液通过提升泵回收至重力沉降罐,污泥通过螺杆泵提升至卧式螺旋离心机脱水、脱油处理后,拉运至污泥处理厂。1.2.4采暖系统红浅稠油处理站采暖系统2009年12月之前一直采用蒸汽采暖,污水处理系统改建时,稠油处理站采暖系统改造为热泵循环采暖。采暖热源由半封闭螺杆水源高温热泵机组提供,热泵机组将换热后的低温清水(40~50℃)通过能量转换成高温热,向建筑物提供75~85℃热水进行采暖。目前稠油处理站处理后软化水温度为68℃,为此设计时增设软化水旁通流程,将软化水提升进采暖管网供暖,同时增加散热片组数,热泵机组处于备用状态,降低系统电耗。2 现场应用情况2.1污水处理工艺流程简介红浅稠油处理站来的含油污水来水进1座6 000m3除油罐及2座3 000m3调储罐进行均质均量处理,使水中含油<100mg/L、悬浮物<150mg/L;在其出水管线上按一定顺序和时间间隔连续加入三种药剂后,再进入4座反应器和2座2 000m3沉降罐反应沉淀,对大部分浮油及悬浮物进行处理,使水中含油<5mg/L、悬浮物<15mg/L,污水进入2座1 000m3过滤缓冲罐后,再经过两级过滤,使水中含油<2mg/L、悬浮物<2mg/L,出水输送至软化站处理后送至注汽站回用注汽锅炉。2.2现场运行情况2009年12月5日采油一厂稠油处理站污水回用锅炉处理工艺投产,经过调试运行,于2009年12月28日处理后污水达到SY/T 0097-2000《稠油油田采出水用于蒸汽发生器给水处理设计规范》,开始回用至红浅区,四二区高压注汽锅炉。各环节处理后的污水水质见表1(数据取自2010年1月1日~2010年12月30日的平均值)和表2。·83· 油气田环境保护·技术研究Vol.22 No.3 表1污水处理系统各环节处理后的水质 mg/L名称6 000m3重力除油罐出口oil  SS3 000m3调储罐出口oil  SS2 000m3混凝沉降罐出口oil  SS一级过滤器进口oil  SS二级过滤器出口oil  SS标准值*≤500 ≤300 ≤100 ≤150 ≤15 ≤15 ≤10 ≤7 ≤2 ≤2实际值 69.3530  50  26  3.23  9.05  1.56  2.9  1.0  1.4*SY/T 0097-2000《稠油油田采出水用于蒸汽发生器给水处理设计规范》表2软化水处理装置来水水质名称 标准值*实际值来水温度/℃ / 59大罐水温/℃ / 57来水压力/MPa / 0.4来水硬度/(mg/L)<300  43来水含油/(mg/L)≤2  0.96来水悬浮物/(mg/L)≤2  1.007来水含铁/(mg/L)≤0.05  0大罐含氧/(mg/L)≤0.05  0.005*SY/T 0097-2000《稠油油田采出水用于蒸汽发生器给水处理设计规范》从表1、表2中可看出,稠油污水回用锅炉处理工艺各环节处理后的水质均达到SY/T 0097-2000《稠油油田采出水用于蒸汽发生器给水处理设计规范》,且各环节处理后的水质实际运行值均低于SY/T0097-2000《稠油油田采出水用于蒸汽发生器给水处理设计规范》,说明采油一厂稠油污水采用离子调整旋流反应水处理技术后,处理后的污水能够达到进软化水处理装置的要求,为稠油污水的回用锅炉和节能减排提供条件。3 经济效益3.1杜绝污水的外排,减少清水消耗和水费通过对稠油污水处理系统的改造,彻底杜绝污水的外排,为企业树立良好的企业形象。同时采用离子调整旋流反应水处理技术,使得处理后的污水达到回用锅炉的水质要求,替代一部分清水。处理后污水供红浅区、红001井区和红003井区锅炉使用,2010年回用锅炉污水量为222×104 m3,单位水价按3.75元/m3计算,年节约清水费用832.5万元。3.2减少加热所需燃料量和费用稠油污水出水温度高,储存一定的热能,处理后回用锅炉可以减少一部分燃料,进污水回用锅炉进水温度为54.5℃,清水锅炉进水温度为23℃,天然气发热值为35 824kJ/Nm3,锅炉平均热效率87.5%,天然气折标煤系数为13.3t(标煤)/(104 m3),天然气价格按1.29元/m3,2010年回用锅炉污水量为222万m3,年节约天然气费用为1 210万元。3.3采用软化水自循环采暖,节约蒸汽耗量稠油处理站总采暖建筑面积约为7 134.5m2,采暖热负荷约为865.2kW,节约蒸汽量43.7t/d,日节约费用3 500元,年节约蒸汽费用63.8万元。3.4回收部分过滤器反冲洗水,减少提升泵的运转和节约电能稠油污水处理系统过滤器每天反冲洗水约1 080m3,利用电动三通阀对部分反冲洗水回收至2 000m3混凝沉降罐的量约600m3,污水回收泵少运行6h,节约用电132kW·h,年节约电费2.8万元。4 结论◆红浅稠油处理站处理后的污水达到SY/T 0097-2000《稠油油田采出水用于蒸汽发生器给水处理设计规范》,使得处理后的污水回用锅炉,减少了污水的外排,充分利用稠油污水热能,2010年共节约清水费用832.5万元,节约天然气费用1 210万元,取得良好的社会和经济效益。◆采用软化水自循环采暖系统以及对部分反冲洗水进行回收,降低稠油处理站耗蒸汽量以及电能。◆通过对含油污水、污泥处理工艺的优化,彻底解决了高浓度含油污水、污泥难处理问题。◆此项工艺的实施,一举三得。为老油田节能减排、挖潜增效走出了一条新路。参 考 文 献[1]孙晓岗.油田采出水离子调整旋流反应污泥吸附法处理技术研究[J].石油规划设计,2008,20(5):22-24.[2]王建华.储罐负压排泥技术[B].石油工程建设,2006.[3]冯永训.油田采出水处理设计手册[M].北京:中国石化出版社,2005.[4]徐奋.污泥脱水设施在净水场排泥中的应用[J].广东化工,2005,15(7):14-16.(收稿日期2012-01-10)(编辑李 娟)·93·2012年6月徐文钢等:稠油污水回用锅炉处理工艺的应用Gu Xuefan Qin Fangling Qu Chengtun Chen Gang(College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Xi'an Shiyou University)ABSTRACT Using Fenton reagents to degrade polyacrylamide inthe oily wastewater,we studied the impact of H2O2dosage,catalysttypes and dosage on the degradation effect of polyacrylamide.Theexperimental results showed:the optimum amount of H2O2was 20%of polyacrylamide;CuCl2had the similar catalytic effect as FeSO4,Fe(NO3)3and FeCl3,and might be used as a catalyst in higher pHvalues;under the optimum conditions,the viscosity of polyacrylamidewas decreased greatly.KEY WORDS Fenton reagent;polyacrylamide;catalyst;oxidativedegradationCharacteristic  Experiment  on  PetroleumContaminated Soil byImmobilized BacteriaRemediation(18)Liu Chunshuang Zhao Dongfeng Guo Yadong HuangSubing Cai Yun(College of Chemical Engineering,China University of Petroleum (ChinaEast))ABSTRACT We apply agradient dilution method to isolate andscreen crude oil-degrading mixed bacteria and immobilize the mixedbacteria on the gravel and peat soil by absorption respectively toinvestigate their removal effects on crude oil contaminated soil.Theresults indicate that mixed bacteria 8-2after isolation have simple floraand can degrade as high as 52.1%of crude oil.Compared with gravel,peat soil immobilizes microbial number and activity up to 1.3×108cfu/g and 0.24A487,respectively.The petroleum hydrocarbonremoval rate can reach as high as 28.4%after 30dremediation byimmobilized 8-2on 30g/kg oil contaminated soil,which is higher thanthat of the free bacteria of 24.3%.The peat soil carrier plays a role ofmicrobial release agent during remediation process.KEY WORDS immobilization;petroleum hydrocarbon;bacteria;contaminated soilStudyon Solidification Treatment of OilfieldWaste DrilingMud(22)Han Jing1,2Qian Wen3Guo Xiaohong2Zhang Hongzan4(1.Tianjin University of Science & Technology;2.Quality,Safety andEnvironmental Protection Department of PetroChina Huabei OilfieldCompany;3.Mining Area Services Department of PetroChina Huabei OilfieldCompany;4.The Second Exploitation Factory of PetroChina Huabei OilfieldCompany)ABSTRACT  Based on the oilfield actual situation and thecharacteristics of waste driling mud,we study the optimum conditionsof solidification and evaluate the solidification effect.Throughqualitative comparative experiments of solidification treatment,wechoose cement,fly ash,lime and loess as raw materials ofsolidification agents screened from a variety of treatment agents.Using screened solidification agents,we design orthogonalexperiments in which the best formula of solidification agents are 10gcement,20g fly ash,8g lime,15g loess with every 100mL mud.Thefactors affecting experiment results are as folows:when the solidcontent of waste mud reaches 30%to 70%,solidification temperaturebetween 20-40 ℃ and solidification time 7d,we attain the bestsolidification effect.KEY WORDS  waste driling mud;solidification treatment;solidification orthogonal experimentApplication of CFD Technologyin theSimulation of Combustible Gas Leakage onOffshore Platform(27)Wang Yuhu(MarineOil Extraction Plant of SINOPEC Shengli Oilfield Company)ABSTRACT Computational fluid dynamics(CFD)technology cananalyze,determine and forecast the proliferation region affected by anatural gas leak.Therefore it has guiding significance to accidentprevention,control and platform emergency escape.This paperintroduces CFD method and the relative theories of combustible gasleaks,and simulates combustible gas leaks on offshore platforms.Theresults provide an effective basis for staff evacuation and safetytechnology management at the spil sites.KEY WORDS CFD;offshore platforms;combustible gas;leakApplication of Biological Aerated Filter ofActive Carbon for Oilfield WastewaterTreatment(30)Liu Wenjie1 Dai Jiaqiang1 Liu Ling1 Zhao Xiaohong1 ShiXiangge2 Jin Jinrong1(1.TheFirst Oil Production Plant of Petrochina Dagang Oilfield Company;2.Drilling Technology Service Company of Bohai Drilling EngineeringCompany,Ltd.)ABSTRACT To meet the request of DB 12/356-2008TianjinIntegrated Wastewater Discharge Standards"(COD≤60mg/L),weconducted technical upgrading to the biochemical treatment process ofthe original wastewater in Dagang Oilfield.We chose biologicalaerated filter of active carbon process for the main technical proposalof engineering transformation.After field implementation,variouswater quality indicators reached the standards of Tianjin which had apractical guiding significance to the deep treatment of industrialwastewater in Dagang Oilfield.KEY WORDS Dagang Oilfield;Oilfield sewage;biochemicaltreatment;biological aerated filter of active carbonCorrosion Detection of Watercourse CrossingOil Pipelines and Simulation to LeakageConsequence(34)Wang Zhixiao(Department of Safety and Environmental Protection,Shengli OilfieldCompany)ABSTRACT To find out the corrosion status of the pipelines,weanalyzed the soil environment,conducted soil corrosion detection ofthe outer anti-corrosive layers and simulated the inner corrosion andthe leakage consequences caused by corrosion damage.The resultsshowed that:the risk of pipeline corrosion was high.Therefore wegave advice on pipeline anti-corrosion work.KEY WORDS water crossing;pipeline;corrosion;leakApplication of Treated HeavyOil Sewage forBoiler Reuse(37)Xu Wengang Li Yuanliang Du Xuefeng Song Wei ShiXinyun·08·Vol.22 No.3      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF OIL &GAS FIELDS        ABSTRACT (FirstOil Extraction Factory of PetroChina Xinjiang Oilfield Company)ABSTRACT  Heavy oil sewage generaly adopts mature ionadjustment and swirl reaction sewage treatment technologies inXinjiang Oilfield Company.The treated sewage meets the waterquality standards of being reused in boilers so as to being provided tothe oilfield high pressure steam injection boilers.When the technologyis put to use at the heavy oil processing station of No.1ProductionPlant,it puts an end to the oily sewage efflux,makes ful use of theheat energy of the heavy oily sewage,and achieves good economic andsocial benefits.KEY WORDS oil removal;ion adjustment;swirl reaction tank;sludge discharge by negative pressureApplication of Pressure Test BlockingDevicesin the DecreasingWel Control SafetyRisk(40)An Yushan1Shen Jianjie2(1.Department of Engineering Technology,Petrochina Dagang OilfieldCompany;2.The Second Oil Production Plant,Petrochina Dagang OilfieldCompany)ABSTRACT In combination with the site characteristics of theunderground work in Dagang Oilfield,we studied the specificproblems of the blowout preventer FZ18-35of the wel control deviceexisting in pressure test:the original pressure test blocking device wasnot suitable for 350type production tree welhead.Therefore weimproved ST18-35pressure test blocking device which was suitable forboth FZ18-35 blowout preventer and 350type production treewelhead to deal with the site pressure test of the wel control device toensure the integrity of the site wel control device and reduce the risksof wel control and environmental polution by blowout accidents.KEY WORDS wel control technology;blocking device;welcontrol safety;research;applicationSterilization Method Optimization of SewageTreatment System on Offshore Oil Platform(42)Chen Jun Li Yi Ma Jie(Offshore Platform Lab of CNOOC Yacheng Operation Company)ABSTRACT Current offshore oil platform sewage treatment systemwidely uses chlorine tablets or chlorine powder to sterilize,whichcauses high cost of procurement and difficulty in dilution control andmedicament accession.The majority offshore oil platforms arealocated with chlorine producing system to produce chlorine water tolimit sea biological attached growth.The experiments show that:using the appropriate concentration of chlorinated water can make thesewage meet the relevant requirements in GB 4914-2008EffluentLimitations for Pollutants from Offshore Petroleum Explorationand Production",and optimizes the sterilization method.KEY WORDS offshore oil platform;septic tank;hypochlorousacid;sewageDiscussion  on  Microwave  ProcessingTechnologyof Oilfield Produced Water(44)Ji Zhonglun Ren Jianke Zhao Min Zhou Lihui(NationalEngineering Laboratory of Low-permeability Oil and GasExploration and Development of Oil & Gas Technology Research Institute,PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company)ABSTRACT  Microwave has functionalities such as assistedflocculation,sterilization,and corrosion reduction when used inoilfield produced water treatment.The experiments show that:theapplication of microwave in oilfield produced water treatment canreduce PAC by 20%,PAM by 30%,and the processing time is 1/4ofthe conventional process.The TGB,FEB and SRB in produced watercan be kiled more than 99%after 60seconds microwave treatment.Compared with the conventional process,the water quality corrosionrate after microwave treatment can be reduced by more than 20%.KEY WORDS oilfield produced water;microwave;flocculation;sterilization;corrosionAnalysis of Impact of Oil Development onLiaohe Oilfield Wetland Landscape PatternChange(47)Ren Wen Yue Yong Chen Meimei(CNPCResearch Institute of Safety &Environment Technology)ABSTRACT Through the analyses of the spatial distribution,variation characteristics and variation tendency of the landscapepattern during the past 20years from 1989to 2009,this paper revealsthat the main driving force causing environmental change of the naturereserve of Shuangtaizi River is the impact of human activities andsocio-economic development and it quantitatively calculates the impactof oil development on the landscape pattern change in the study area.The results show that the land use type of Shuangtaihekou naturereserve has undergone a drastic change from 1989to 2009,thefragmentation degree of landscape has increased significantly,and landuse and landscape pattern of the protected areas has also undergone asignificant change caused by human activities. However,thecontribution rate of the oilfield development in overal land-use changeis only 4.6%.KEY WORDS  Liaohe Oilfield;landscap
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