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沁水盆地南部煤层气U型井钻井技术及应用_刘亚军

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沁水 盆地 南部 煤层气 钻井 技术 应用 亚军
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 [收稿日期 ]2013-01-13[作者简介 ]刘亚军 (1977-),男 ,工程师 ,现主要从事煤层气钻井技术方面的研究工作 。沁水盆地南部煤层气U型井钻井技术及应用刘亚军 ,陈旭(中海油能源发展监督监理技术分公司 ,天津300452)[摘要 ]根据沁水盆地南部地质及煤储层的发育特点 ,介绍了该区块远端水平连通井的钻井工艺 ,包括U型井设计 、钻具组合优化 、随钻测量技术 、井眼轨迹控制和煤层段钻井液技术等 。[关键词 ]煤层气 ;U型井;无固相钻井液 ;沁水盆地[中图分类号 ]TE242[文献标志码 ]A  [文章编号 ]1673-1409(2013)14-0043-041 沁水盆地南部地层特征及煤储层发育特点沁水盆地南部区块地层为典型的华北石炭-二叠纪含煤地层 ,煤系基底为奥陶系峰峰组 (O2f)。根据实际钻探资料 ,该区地层自下而上发育下古生界奥陶系中统峰峰组 (O2f)、上古生界石炭系中统本溪组 (C2b)、上统太原组 (C3t)、二叠系下统山西组 (P1s)和下石盒子组 (P1x)、二叠系上统上石盒子组 (P2s)、上统石千峰组 (P2sh)、中生界三叠系下统刘家沟组 (T1l)及新生界第四系 (Q)。其中主要含煤层系山西组和太原组广泛分布 ,保存完整 ,是主要的煤层气勘探和生产层系 。具体地层及深度见表1。表 1沁水盆地南部区块地层特征简表地层单位界 系 统 组地层符号地层厚度/m岩性描述新生界 第四系 Q0~7粘土 、亚粘土 、砂 、砂砾 。古生界 二叠系 上统 石千峰组 P2sh  0~150红色 、紫红色泥岩 、中粒砂岩 。上石盒子组 P2s  480杂色砂岩 、泥岩及砂质泥岩 。下统 下石盒子组 P1x  62~97砂岩 、砂质泥岩 、泥岩 、顶部杂色 。山西组 P1s  34~52灰岩 、泥岩 ,粉砂岩以及煤层 。石炭系 上统 太原组 C3t  112~125泥岩 、粉砂岩夹煤层与灰岩 。中统 本溪组 C2b  5~18砂岩 、砾岩 、粉砂岩 、铝质泥岩 。奥陶系 中统 峰峰组 O2f  33~75灰黑色泥岩为主 。上马家沟组 O2s  62~115深灰色厚层石灰岩沁水盆地南部煤储层的渗透率多小于0.1×10-3μm2,属于低-中渗 ;储层厚度多在6m左右 ;储层压力平均为3.73MPa,压力梯度为0.6~0.8MPa/100m,属于低压 ;含气量多在15~20m3/t,具有较高的含气量 ;含水通常较少 ,构造稳定 ,储层延续性好 ;割理发育 ,密度达到500条 /m2,且端割理与面割理同等发育 。综上所述 ,沁水盆地南部煤储层应属于低压低渗厚层高含气量储层 。2 沁水盆地南部地层U型井作业难点(1)可参考的资料少 ,目的层深度不能确定 ,造成着陆困难 。煤层气开发中普遍不进行地震勘查 ,没有详细的二维地震和三维地震资料 ,可以参考的数据主要来源于煤矿的钻孔数据 ,而煤矿钻孔距此井位又比较远 ;无地层压力 、井温梯度的预测 ,也无断层提示 ,增大了作业的风险 ;煤层薄 ,煤层一般厚度为2~4m,地层起伏变化大 ,一次着陆的难度大 。这样 ,能参考的仅有邻井的测井数据 ,但邻井的距离也在1.4km左右 。(2)煤层厚度薄 ,地层起伏大 ,很难保证煤层钻遇率 。地区的煤层厚度一般在2~4m,地层起伏很大 ,钻遇顶底板的几率很大 ,一旦钻遇顶板或者底板 ,回调的难度大 ,对煤层的钻遇率有影响 ,而井身·34·长江大学学报 (自科版 )2013年 5月号石油中旬刊 第 10卷 第 14期Journal of Yangtze University(Nat Sci Edit)May 2013,Vol.10No.14质量要求煤层钻遇率必须大于80%。(3)煤层的防踏 、防漏 、储层保护难度 。煤层气是吸附气 ,主要赋存于煤层的割理和裂缝中 ,优良的产煤层气的煤层普遍存在割理 、裂缝发育的特点 ,煤层具有的脆性大 、强度低 、孔隙度低的特点 ,受应力 、水敏 、自吸 、结垢 、固相侵入等影响 ,因此水平段钻进时易发生坍塌 、漏失等工程风险 (事故率超过50%),储层易伤害 ,储层保护难度大 。图 1U型连通水平井井身结构示意图3 SN015-5井设计概况煤层气勘探开发采用U型连通井技术 ,利用定向井与其远端的直井在井下连通 ,建立煤层流体循环系统 ,进而在直井端进行后期的排采作业 (见图1)。煤层气开发采用U型井具有扩大单井控制面积 、提高单井产能 、减少征地面积的优势 。水平段长度小于500m的称为短U型井 ,水平段长度大于500m的称为长U型井 。如何保证水平段的安全钻进 、防止井壁坍塌 、做好煤层段的储层保护是U型井的主要技术难点 。SN015-5井组是中联煤层气有限责任公司在沁水盆地南部布置的一对长距离联通U型井 ,含SN015-5V及SN015-5H两口井 ,SN015-5H为工程井 ,其三开水平段在3#煤层中钻进 ,并与SN015-5V井在3#煤层连通 。井身结构示意图如图2所示 。4 钻具组合和钻井参数优选4.1 造斜段钻具组合图 2SN015-5井组井身结构示意图造斜段钻具组合如下 :241.3mmPDC bit×0.38m+197mm LZ(1.25deg)×8.30m +172mm定 向 接 头×0.89m+172mm NMDC×9.18m+165mm NMDC×9.22mm+165mmDC+127mm DP。钻井参数如下 :WOB(钻压 ):20~60kN,FLOW(泵排量 ):25~30L/s。选用1.25°马达 ,保证了造斜率 ,使用过程中增斜效果良好 。4.2 水平段钻具组合水平段钻具组合如下 :171.45mmPDC×0.19m+127mm LZ(1.25deg)×5.35m+120mm UBHO×0.89m+123mm NMDC×6.15m+120mmGapsub×1.18mm+123mm NMDC×2.10mm+123mm NMDC×2.10mm+120mm NMDC×0.60mm+89mm DP。钻井参数如下 :WOB:40~50kN,FLOW:16~18L/s。水平段采用转盘旋转钻进与滑动钻进 ,通过电磁波随钻测量系统 (Electro-Magnetic Measurment-While-Driling,EM-MWD)随钻仪器判断钻头在煤层中的位置 ,合理控制钻头穿行轨迹 ,保证每层钻遇率 。4.3 连通钻具组合连通钻具组合如下 :171.45mm PDC×0.32m +强磁 (RMRS)×0.42m+127mm LZ·44·石油中旬刊*油气田开发工程 2013年 5月(1.5deg)×5.35m+120mm定向接头×0.67m+123mm NMDC×6.15m+123mm NMDC×6.15m+89mm DP。连通之前 ,直井下入Vector连通工具 ,水平井加入强磁接头 ,最终顺利实现连通 。5 随钻测量技术EM-MWD波随钻测量技术的特点如下 :电磁波随钻测量仪能将反映井底轨迹方向 、地层特性参数的低频电磁波信号传输到地面 。而国内目前大量使用的泥浆脉冲随钻测量系统采用的是水力信息通道 。比较而言 ,水力通道 (常规MWD)通信的结果可靠 ,但对钻进液有严格的要求 ,且对含气量特别敏感 ,当使用可压缩性钻井介质时 ,会导致压力波信号变形 ,在地面上很难检测出正确的信号 ,无法为欠平衡钻井传输可靠的地质导向信息和地质测井资料 。EM-MWD是通过发射电磁波进入地层来传输井下数据的 ,不受井斜角大小 、钻井液 (介质 )、钻井方式 (旋转钻或滑动钻 )等条件的限制 ,最大优点是不需要钻井液作为信号载体 ,无需机械接收装置 ,系统稳定性好 ,数据传输度快 ,因而便于更为准确实时的控制井眼轨迹 。在着陆作业时 ,可以通过EM-MWD工具的电位信号配合钻时参数及时初步判断近钻头处的岩性 ,通过测量已钻地层的伽马数据 、电位和钻时数据判断地层的岩性 ,对比标志层 ,从而指导井眼顺利着陆 。6 井眼轨迹的控制井眼轨迹控制是煤层气水平井钻井成功与否的关键 ,可以通过增 、降井斜的方式调整轨迹的垂深位置 。通过钻时 、岩屑 、GR和EM仪器电压信号等实时资料判断轨迹在煤层中的位置 ,从而实时调整 。3#煤层直接顶板为砂质泥岩 ,可钻性较差 ,底板为泥岩 ;煤层下分层为粉煤 ,井眼轨迹尽量控制在煤层上分层 。SN015-5井井眼轨迹和煤层的关系如图3所示 。从图3中可以看出 ,实钻的轨迹和设计轨迹差别较大 ,地层倾角变化由陡到缓 ,甚至后面有的井段出现上翘的现象 ,实际的复杂的轨迹给作业带来了一定的难度 ,在实际钻进时先后共3次钻遇煤层顶板 ,通过EM-MWD工具跟踪发现并及时调整轨迹 ,使整个井眼全部在煤层中穿过 ,最终煤层钻遇率达到了100%,井身质量全优 。图 3SN015-5井实钻轨迹与煤层关系图7 钻井液技术根据沁水盆地煤层损害机理[2-6],为防止水平段煤层坍塌 ,同时又最大程度保护煤层 ,决定采用无固相钻井液打开煤层 ,室内评价了无固相钻井液对煤层的损害结果 。结果表明 ,该无固相钻井液较清水具有更优的煤层保护效果 (见表2)。·54·第10卷 第 14期 刘亚军等:沁水盆地南部煤层气U型井钻井技术及应用  表 2钻井液对煤岩渗透率伤害评价结果煤号 污染介质压差/MPa平流泵排量/ml·min-1初始渗透率/10-3μm2污染后渗透率/10-3μm2渗透率损害率/%S-4 清水 0.5  0.05  0.273  0.242  11.2S-5 无固相钻井液 0.5  0.05  0.578  0.564  2.5三开地层为粉煤块煤交错 ,开钻钻井液性能为漏斗黏度35s,密度1.05g/cm3,pH值7~8。用可溶性盐类调节密度 ,聚合物段塞清扫井眼 。钻井过程中 ,由于粉煤影响 ,掉块比较严重 ,逐渐提高钻井液的密度至1.15g/cm3,解决了煤层垮塌问题 ,保障井下安全钻进和下套管的施工作业 。8 结论(1)U型井钻进时 ,着陆很关键 ,现场通过与与地质导向结合起来 ,及时找到标志层的位置并不断的更新 ,从而计算目的层的深度 ,及时调整井眼轨迹 ,使其顺利完成着陆 。(2)水平段钻进时 ,因实钻的井眼轨迹与设计轨迹差别较大 ,要根据EM-MWD、钻时 、岩屑 、GR曲线 、电信号等来确定井眼在煤层中的位置 ,确保煤层的钻遇率 。(3)无固相钻井液既能够保障煤层井壁稳定 、平衡地层压力 ,同时又具有良好的煤层保护效果 ;其增加成本也很有限 ,应用前景广阔 。[参考文献 ][1]张群 ,冯三利 ,杨锡禄.试论我国煤层气的基本储层特点及开发策略[J].煤炭学报,2001,26(3):231-233.[2]汪伟英 ,陶杉 ,黄磊.煤层气储层钻井液结垢伤害实验研究[J].石油钻采工艺,2010,32(5):36-38.[3]李相臣 ,康毅力.煤层气储层破坏机理及其影响研究[J].中国煤层气,2001,5(1):35-37.[4]张洪 ,何爱国.沁水盆地不同钻井方案优选[J].中国煤层气,2011,8(1):43-47.[5]岳前升 ,邹来方 ,蒋光忠 ,等.煤层气水平井钻井过程储层损害机理[J].煤炭学报,2012,37(1):91-95.[6]岳前升 ,陈军 ,邹来方 ,等.沁水盆地基于储层保护的煤层气水平井钻井液的研究[J].煤炭学报,2012,S(2):416-419.[编辑 ]洪云飞(上接第26页)[5]姜福杰 ,武丽 ,李霞 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reverse drag anticline or faulted anticline and broom-like fault;the middle is high-steep fault、West grid faults,and the nose structure and anticline result from the joint effects of saltmud piercing along the high-steep section,diapir upwarp of detach-type salt roling,salt mud cone and salt mud.Thewestern part is listric faults on steep under slow forward,the positive and negative off-order combination,the secondaryfracture that reverse of it is high density,west is mainly north-dipping fault and horst structure,Qianbei Fault gradualydisappears.Keywords:Qianbei Fault Zone;structural feature;structural styles24 Analysis for the Sources of N12Oil-bearing Member of Neogene in Nanbaxian Oilfield of Qaidam BasinMAO Shu-wei,LI Jian-ming  (Yangtze University,Wuhan 430100)LI Qing,SUN Hu-fa  (Research Institute of Exploration and Development of Qinghai Oilfield Company,CNPC,Dunhuang736202)Abstract:The study area is located in the northeast of Qaidam Basin.Mineral identification data show that the stableheavy mineral content increased gradualy from north east to south west,and presents a form of zircon+garnet+tourmaline+epidote+sphene+rutile;ZTR index ranges from 0.15to 0.36;The average of compositional maturity index is 0.77.Itproves that the maturity is low,the ZTR index and maturity index increase from north east to the south west,from southeast to north west.Sandstone thickness is more and more thinner from the north east,south east to the south,west andnorth west.And the oxidation color of mudstone presents wide distribution in the research area,and the content of itsoxidation color reduce gradualy from the north east to the south west.The result shows that there are two sources for N12oil-bearing formation,one is the metamorphic rock area of the Qilian Mountain in the north-east of Nanbaxian Oilfield andthe other is the area of the south-east of the structure high side of Nanbaxian Oilfield.Besides,it shows that Qaidam Basinis in a fade period during the N12.And this research is beneficial for studying the process of deposit and for evaluation andexploration of Qaidam Basin.Keywords:sources;heavy mineral;N12oil-bearing member;Nanbaxian Oilfield;Qaidam Basin27 The MatchingBetween Tectonics and Sedimentaryof Albertine GrabenLIU Gui-he,PENG Wen-xu,LIU Xi-ling  (CNOOC Uganda Limited,Beijing100010)Abstract:Albertine graben is located in the northwest branch of the East African Rift Valey,across the Congo(Kinshasa)and Uganda.And it is the biggest and thickest sub-basin in the East African Rift Valey.The largest deposition thicknesscan be 6000mof the graben.Studies suggest that the East African Rift Valey had gone through three stages mainly,including the Karoo rift period,intraplate rift period and rift period.Albertine graben rift is originaly from 12Ma geologicalhistorical periods,along with the main rifting at third stage of the tectonic evolution.Then,Albertine graben comes intothe main rifting stage from about 9Ma which could be divided into four periods by the main tectonic movement.Influencedby the multiple phrases of the regional technic movements,Albertine graben comes into complex and topic fault system.There exist three sections of fault systems from the north to the south of the basin,the NNE-SSW trend faults are locatedin the north area,the NE-SW trend faults are located in the middle and the NNE-SSW trend faults located in the southarea.Albertine graben also developes a set of thick stratigraphies,which is crust of weathering deposited in the middleMiocene,delta fan and aluvial fan are deposited in the late Miocene to and Early-Pliocene,large delta sedimentary stratadeposited in Late Pliocene,and fluvial and delta deposited with the rifting of the Ruwenzori mountain are developed duringPleistocene to Holocene.Keywords:Albertine graben;tectonic evolution;sedimentary filing;combination of reservoir and caprock30 The Research Progress on SedimentaryMode of Deepwater Deposition and Submarine FanLIU Xi-ling  (CNOOC International Limited,Beijing100010)LIU Jun-rong  (Research Institute of Exploration and Development,Jidong Oilfield Company,Petrochina,Tangshan063004)Abstract:With the technologic advancement of oil and gas exploration,deep marine area has become the new hot pointgradualy.As the main reservoir of the deep water,the exclusive and complex characters of the sedimentary facies model,submarine fan has always been the key topic of depositional experts in the world.On the basic of analysis of the similaritiesand differences in different periods of“submarine fan”theory and its mechanism,sedimentary model,the characters andimprovements of the deep-water sedimentary research are summarized,the study shows that the mechanism and sedimentarymode are difficulties in the offshore petroleum geology field.It is recongnized that sedimentary scientists have alreadymade the most solid step,to the description of the phenomenon and the sedimentary dynamic mechanism during more thana century of research.At the same time,more and more submarine fan modes have been established based on the data ofcore,logging and seism,which form the effective foundation of reservoir prediction of oil and gas exploration in deep water.Keywords:deepwater deposition;submarine fan;dynamics mechanism;sedimentary model43 DrilingTechnologyand Application of the Coalbed Methane“U”Type Wel in the Southern Qinshui BasinLIU Yajun,CHEN Xu  (CNOOC Energy Technology &Services Limited Co.,Tianjin300452)Abstract:According to the developmental characteristics of geology and coal reservoir in the southern Qinshui Basin,thisarticle introduces distal horizontal wel driling technology,including the driling technology of the“U”type wels,theⅢcombination optimization of driling rig,the control of wel track and coalbed methane driling fluid technology and so on.Keywords:coalbed methane;“U”type wel;solid free driling fluid;Qinshui Basin47 The Research of SXXH Horizontal Wel DrilingTechnologyin Sulige Gas FieldLIU Han-yu  (Yangtze University,Wuhan 430100;Bohai Drilling Engineering Company,PetroChina,Tianjin300280)XU Shu-yue,HU Xiao-yuan,ZHANG Song-bai,LIU Xue-min,ZHANG Tong-ying  (Bohai Drilling Engineering Company,PetroChina,Tianjin300280)MA Wen-ting  (Shallow Water Development Company,Dagang Oilfield Company,PetroChina,Tianjin300280)Abstract:At present in Sulige Gas Field,three spud horizontal wel driling technology is implemented at large-scale,it ismatured after many years of exploration,further shortening the three spud horizontal wel driling cycle is very difficult.TheSXXH Wel first adopts two spud horizontal wel driling technology,through bit selection,hole trajectory optimization,BHA selection,optimizing driling fluid and a series of comprehensive acceleration technology measures,in the secondspud driling process,the process drifting wel,running casing,waiting for cement curing,driling out cement and soon are avoided,thus it effectively reduces the driling cycle.SXXH Wel driling construction is successful completed,itcreates a new record for horizontal wel driling,completion.Keywords:Sulige Gas Field;two spud horizontal wel;bit selection;hole trajectory optimization;bottom hole assembly50 Welbore Stabilityof Horizontal Wel Deflection Section and Build Section in Sulige Gas FieldHAN Wei-chao  (Yangtze University,Wuhan 430100;No 3 Drilling Company,Bohai Drilling Engineering Company,PetroChina,Tianjin300280)XU Xiao-lei,ZHAO Peng,WU Xiao-long  (No 3 Drilling Company,Bohai Drilling Engineering Company,PetroChina,Tianjin300280)Abstract:Sulige Gas Field is a lithologic gas field with low pressure,low permeability,low abundance,horizontal weltechnology is an effective method to develop this type of gas field.In recent years,along with development of Sulige GasField,the number of horizontal wel driling increases year by year.In the horizontal wel construction,deflecting sectionis mainly concentrated in the Shiqianfeng Formation and Xiashihezi Formation(abbreviation for Shuangshi Formation),however there is shale formation,brittle,vulnerable which is be easy to be colapsed.Through the mechanism of instabilityanalysis for Shuangshi Formation of borehole,borehole stability,it puts forward the measures for wel trajectory optimization,the optimized driling fluid system optimization,bit selection,field construction.Keywords:Sulige Gas Field;kick off section and build section;clay stone;Control welbore wal stability67 Reservoir SensitivityEvaluation of Wel L1in Lunnan OilfieldZHANG Tao  (Yangtze University,Jingzhou434023)WANG Yan-qiu,LI Ruo-zhu  (Development Department,Tarim Oilfield Company,Korla841000)ZHANG Xing-yong  (Xinjiang Oilfield Company,PetroChina,Karamay834000)FAN Jun-qiang,LI Xiao-wei  (No.5 Well Drilling Company of Bohai Drilling Company,CNPC,Hejian062450)Abstract:Lunnan Oilfield came into production in 1992,more than 20years of oil exploitation,remaining oil distributionis dispersed highly,subsurface oil-water system is different from early development.Reservoir sensitivity of Wel L1isevaluated,velocity sensitivity is weak and medium-weak,water sensitivity is weak,salt sensitivity is medium-strong andweak a
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本文标题:沁水盆地南部煤层气U型井钻井技术及应用_刘亚军
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