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准噶尔盆地浅层稠油油藏的细化分类与地质意义

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准噶尔盆地 浅层稠 油油 细化 分类 地质 意义
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 [收稿日期 ]2010-12-20[作者简介 ]喻克全 (1965-),男 ,1989年大学毕业,博士 ,高级工程师 ,现主要从事油气田开发技术研究及管理工作 。准噶尔盆地浅层稠油油藏的细化分类与地质意义喻克全 ,马鸿木合塔尔 ,黎庆元(中石油新疆油田分公司勘探开发研究院 ,新疆 克拉玛依834000)[摘要 ]国内稠油分类标准于20世纪 80年代末由刘文章教授提出并建立起来。该标准以原油粘度作为主要分类指标 ,以原油密度作为辅助分类指标 。准噶尔盆地浅层稠油开发实践表明 ,不同类型储层的稠油油藏开发方式及效果差异很大 ,除原油粘度外 ,储层岩性是影响稠油开发效果的另一重要因素 。在国内稠油分类标准的基础上 ,根据新疆准噶尔盆地西北缘油区 4个油田 22个稠油主力层块分析结果 ,采用地面脱气原油粘度为主要指标 ,储层岩性作为辅助指标 ,结合开发难易程度 ,将准噶尔盆地浅层稠油分为 3大类 4亚类 12级 ,以期为今后的稠油开发研究和油藏管理提供借鉴 。[关键词 ]稠油油藏 ;分类标准 ;地质意义 ;新疆油田[中图分类号 ]TE122[文献标识码 ]A  [文章编号 ]1000-9752(2011)06-0032-04准噶尔盆地浅层稠油资源丰富 ,截止2008年 ,累积产油5364.5×104t,2008年稠油产量401.2×104t,占全油田产量33%,稠油的有效开发对克拉玛依油田的稳产具有重要作用 。新疆油田稠油油藏类型多 ,储层物性 、原油性质差异大 ,生产规律复杂[1]。为了更好地满足开发生产 ,促进稠油开发技术的进一步深化配套 ,在稠油油藏地质特点 、生产特征和影响开发效果的主要因素系统分析和总结的基础上 ,重新对准噶尔盆地浅层稠油进行了细化和分类 。1 准噶尔盆地浅层稠油分类准噶尔盆地浅层稠油大规模开发始于1985年 ,至1998年主要开发的是以六区 、九区为代表的普通-特稠油油藏 ,储层岩性以中 、细砂岩为主 ;1998~2005年主要开发的是以百重7井区 、九9区为代表的特稠油油藏 ,储层岩性以砂砾岩为主 ;2005年以后主要开发的是以九7+8区 、风城油田为代表的超稠油油藏 ,储层岩性以中细砂岩为主 。1.1 分类原则国内稠油分类标准于20世纪80年代末由刘文章教授提出并建立起来[2]。该标准以原油粘度作为主 要分类指标 ,以原油密度作为辅助分类指标 ,将稠油细分为3大类4级 (表1),没有考虑储层性质参表 1刘文章稠油分类[2]稠油分类名称 级别油层温度下粘度 /mPa·s(主要指标 )密度 /g·cm-3(辅助指标 )开采方式普通稠油Ⅰ Ⅰ-1  50*~150*>0.9200注水或注蒸汽Ⅰ-2  150*~10000 >0.9200注蒸汽特稠油Ⅱ 10000~50000 >0.9500注蒸汽超稠油 (天然沥青 )Ⅲ >50000 >0.9800注蒸汽注 :*指油层条件下粘度 ,其他指油层温度下脱气油粘度 。·23·石油天然气学报 (江汉石油学院学报 )2011年 6月第 33卷第 6期Journal of Oil and Gas Technology(J.JPI)Jun.2011 Vol.33 No.6数指标 。准噶尔盆地浅层稠油开发已经20多年 ,开发的稠油类型日趋多样 。生产实践表明 ,不同类型储层的稠油油藏开发方式及效果差异很大 ,除原油粘度外 ,储层性质是影响稠油开发效果的另一重要因素 。因此 ,只考虑原油粘度和密度的分类标准在生产应用中存在一定的局限性 。根据准噶尔盆地西北缘油区4个油田22个稠油主力层块资料 ,对稠油进行了分类 。依据以下3条原则 :①为便于推广和交流 ,分类标准以刘文章教授分类为基础 ,同时充分考虑该油田的具体特点 ;②以常用的原油性质和储层性质为分类指标 ,并考虑人们在应用上的习惯 ;③与目前技术水平下的开采难度相结合 ,增强实用性和可操作性 。1.2 分类标准1)原油粘度分类准噶尔盆地浅层超稠油20℃原油粘度在 (5~500)×104 mPa·s之间 ,50℃原油粘度在 (2~100)×103 mPa·s之间 ,原油粘度对生产效果的影响很大 。以砂岩油藏为例 ,20℃原油粘度小于200000mPa·s(50℃小于5000mPa·s)的井采用常规注蒸汽开采可以取得一定效果 ;50℃原油粘度在 (5~10)×103 mPa·s必须采取适当措施才能有效开发 ;50℃原油粘度在 (1~1.5)×104 mPa·s必须采取适当措施才能正常生产 ,但生产效果较差 ;50℃原油粘度大于15000mPa·s目前不能有效开发 (图1)。准噶尔盆地稠油粘度小于150mPa·s时 ,密度一般小于0.9g/cm3;粘度50000mPa·s时 ,密度一般小于0.95g/cm3,表1分类标准的原油密度与新疆油田原油粘度之间没有很好的相关性 。另外 ,不同油藏的密度与粘度的相关性也有差异 (图2),因此 ,原油密度不宜作为分类指标 。图 1原油粘度 (50℃)与单井累积产量关系图图 2准噶尔盆地浅层稠油密度与粘度关系图表 2准噶尔盆地浅层稠油分类 (粘度分类 )油藏类型50℃原油粘度/mPa·s20℃原油粘度/mPa·s普通稠油<700 <10000特稠油 700~2000  10000~50000超稠油Ⅰ类 2000~5000  50000~200000Ⅱ类 5000~10000  200000~600000Ⅲ类 10000~15000 600000~1000000Ⅳ类>15000 >1000000综合以上分析 ,保持表1中原油粘度分类对普通稠油和特稠油的划分标准 ,将超稠油进一步细化成4个亚类 ,形成准噶尔盆地浅层稠油粘度分类标准 。考虑超稠油20℃粘度测不准 ,主要以50℃粘度进行分类 ,通过20℃粘度与50℃粘度回归分析 ,给出20℃粘度参考值 (表2)。2)储层性质分类按岩性和原油粘度对准噶尔盆地22个浅层稠油已开发层块进行分类统计 ,砂岩 、砂砾岩油藏孔隙度 、渗透率的分界线较 为 明 显 ,分 别 为27%和800×10-3μm2(图3)。岩性对生产效果影响很大 ,砂岩普通稠油层块生产效果好于砂砾岩普通稠油层块 ,砂岩特稠油·33·第 33卷第 6期 喻克全等 :准噶尔盆地浅层稠油油藏的细化分类与地质意义层块生产效果好于砂砾岩特稠油层块 ;并且砂砾岩特稠油层块生产效果很差 ,单井产油量达不到经济开发下限 (2800t)。储层岩性可以作为原油粘度分类的补充 ,并且具有显著的分类特征 。图 3不同类型层块孔隙度 、渗透率与单井累积产油量关系图图 4不同类型层块油层厚度与单井累积产油量关系图按岩性 、原油粘度与油层厚度再次对22个浅层稠油已开发层块进行分类统计 ,虽然生产规律明显 ,但分类特征不显著 (图4),因此 ,油层厚度没有分类意义 。按岩性 、原油粘度与油层系数对22个浅层稠油已开发层块分类统计 ,同样是生产规律明显 ,但分类特征不显著 。基于以上分析 ,在原油粘度分类的基础上 ,以储层岩性为第2分类指标 ,将普通稠油 、特稠油以及超稠油分为3大类4亚类 ,再细分为砂岩普通稠油 、砂砾岩普通稠油 、砂岩特稠油 、砂砾岩特稠油 、砂岩超稠油Ⅰ类 、砂砾岩超稠油Ⅰ类等12级(表3)。表 3准噶尔盆地浅层稠油分类稠油分类第 1指标20℃粘度 mPa·s  50℃粘度 mPa·s第 2指标储层岩性 孔隙度 /% 渗透率 /10-3μm2普通稠油<10000 <700砂岩 27~36 >800砂砾岩 19~27  200~800特稠油 10000~50000  700~2000砂岩 27~36 >800砂砾岩 22~27  300~800超稠油Ⅰ类 50000~200000  2000~5000砂岩 27~36 >800砂砾岩 22~27  300~800Ⅱ类 200000~600000  5000~10000砂岩 27~36 >800砂砾岩 22~27  300~800Ⅲ类 600000~1000000  10000~15000砂岩 27~36 >800砂砾岩 22~27  300~800Ⅳ类>1000000 >15000砂岩 27~36 >800砂砾岩 22~27  300~800·43·石油天然气学报 (江汉石油学院学报 ) 2011年 6月2 准噶尔盆地浅层稠油分类的生产应用2.1 细化后的准噶尔盆地浅层稠油分类更合理且更适用图 5不同岩性段水平井效果对比图引入岩性分类指标之前 ,对百重7井区水平井生产效果的评价是生产效果一般 。进行岩性细分统计后 (图5),评价结论为 ,砂岩水平井生产效果较好 ,砂砾岩水平井生产效果较差 ,并提示砂砾岩采用水平井开发要慎重 。细化分类后的统计结果表明 ,不同类型油藏注采参数有所不同 。例如 ,九6区齐古组为砂岩特稠油油藏 ,百重7井区八道湾组为砂砾岩特稠油油藏 。九6区齐古组 的 首 轮 最 优 吞 吐 注 汽 量 在110~130t/m,最优注汽速度在150~180t/d;而百 重7井 区 八 道 湾 组 分 别 为100~120t/m和100~120t/d。分 类 细 化 后 ,可以使措施和管理更到位 。2.2 分类细化后的准噶尔盆地浅层稠油开发技术政策将更加系列化油藏分类细化后 ,开发技术政策将由原来的普通稠油 、特稠油 、超稠油3个系列逐步完善形成原油粘度 (6类 )与储层岩性 (2类 )组合后的12个系列 。新技术政策系列的形成对稠油方案优化设计以及稠油生产中优化注汽 、降低生产成本方面有很好的借鉴指导作用 。3 结论1)准噶尔盆地浅层稠油按原油性质 、储层岩性可以划分为3大类4亚类12级 ,各类油藏属性和生产特征有明显差异 ,该分类对细化方案研究和油藏管理更有意义 。2)重新确定的油藏分类是与现阶段技术水平和认识相适应的 ,随着技术的发展和认识的深入 ,该标准也需要进一步完善 、修正 。[参考文献 ][1]孙川生 ,彭顺龙.克拉玛依九区热采稠油油藏[M].北京:石油工业出版社 ,1998.[2]刘文章.稠油注蒸汽热采工程[M].北京:石油工业出版社 ,1999.[编辑 ]宋换新·53·第 33卷第 6期 喻克全等 :准噶尔盆地浅层稠油油藏的细化分类与地质意义-32.2‰andδ13 C2is lighter than-27‰.According the research of gas-source correlation,the gas in the lower system isoriginated from the second member of Xujihe Formation and Maantang-Xiaotangzi Formation and the third member ofXujiahe Formation is the source rock of the upper system.Keywords:carbon isotope;gas-source;Xujihe Formation;Xiaoquan-Fenggu Structural Belt22 Research on Diagenetic Characteristics of Various Stress Fields in Lower Yangtze AreaYANG Shao-chun,WANG Hui-juan,REN Huai-qiang,SHI Xiang-ming,TAN Ying (First Authors Address:College of EarthResources and Information,China University of Petroleum,Qingdao 266555,Shandong,China)Abstract:Based on the outcrop observation,analysis of optical microscope,SEM inspection and electron energy spec-trometry,X-Ray diffractometry and inclusion analysis,the Triassic Qinglong Formation and Jurassic Xiangshan Forma-tion in Lower Yangtze Aera were studied.The research indicates that there were two kinds of stress fields in Lower Yan-gtze Aera,they were compressional stress field and extensional stress field.The compressional stress field was corre-sponded to the characteristics of structural diagenesis,such as structural stylolite,mud suture,nonuniform muddy en-richment,discrete microstylolite and regional recrystalization etc.Folds in different deformational levels had differenttectonic diagenetic phenomena and intensities,with the increase of fold deformation,the tectonic diagenetic intensity be-came stronger and stronger.The extensional stress field was corresponded to various post tectonic fractures and tensilecracks of the quartz particles etc.The study demonstrates that rocks and layers under different stresses have various tec-tonic deformational characters.There is an apparent positive correlation between diagenetic intensity and deformationalintensity.Keywords:compression stress field;extensional stress field;tectonic diagenesis;diagenetic intensity;Lower YangtzeArea26 Characteristics of Micro-pore Structures of Reservoirs and Classification Evaluation of Kangcun Forma-tion in Dawanqi OilfieldLI Xiao-feng,PENG Shi-mi (First Authors Address:Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,CNPC,Bei-jing100034,China)Abstract:The data of casting sections,scanning electron microscope and mercury intrusion test were used to study themicroscopic pore structures of Kangcun Formation in Dawanqi Oilfield.Study indicated that its reservoir diagenesis wascompaction and cementation,while the next was corrosion and metasomatose of terrigenous carbonate perticles.reservoirspace types were mainly composed of remaining intergranular pores,intergranular dissolved pores and intragranular dis-solved pores.The pore throat assemblage types were mainly medium-pore and medium-throat and medium-pore and smalthroat.By means of factor analysis and cluster analysis,the microscopic pore structure can be classified into four types.Al of these provide the reliable geologic foundation for the adjustment of oilfield development plan.Keywords:Dawanqi Oilfield;Kangcun Formation;reservoir space;pore structure;cluster analysis32 Subdivision and Geological Significance of Shalow Heavy-oil Reservoirs in Junggar BasinYU Ke-quan MA HongMU Hetaer LI Qing-yuan (Authors Address:Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and develop-ment,Xinjiang Oilfield Company,CNPC,Karamay834000,Xinjiang,China)Abstract:The internal classification standard of heavy oil was proposed and established by Professor Liu Wenzhang in thelate 1980s.The standard used the heavy oil viscosity as the classification index and its density as the auxiliary classifica-tion index.The exploitation practice of the shalow reservoirs in Xinjiang Oilfield shows that different types of heavy oilreservoirs have different development ways and effect,the reservoir lithology is another important factor influencing thedevelopment effect.Based on the internal heavy oil classification standard and according to the analysis results of 22heavy oil blocks in 4oilfields in northwest of Xinjiang Oilfield,surface degassing oil viscosity is used as main index,res-ervoir lithology is used as second index,in combination with difficulty degree of its development,shalow heavy oil inXinjiang Oilfield is classified into,and 12grades of 4subclasses of 3classes,for the purpose of providing some refer-ences for heavy oil development and reservoir management in the future.Keywords:shalow reservoir;classification standard;geological significance;Xinjiang Oilfield36 Relation between Geochemical Characteristics of Natural Gas and Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Yuanbaand Tongnanba AreasLI Feng,ZHANG Qing,HUANG Ren-chun,ZHAO Yong-qing,TIAN Jiang,ZHU Xiang (Authors Address:SINOPEC Explo-ration Southern Company,Chengdu610041,Sichuan,China)Abstract:Based on the gas geochemistry characteristics of driled wels and analysis of gas origin in Yuanba and Tong-nanba Areas,and in combination with regional geological background,study results showed that two work areas werethe same of high thermal evolution of methane,dry gas content was low heavy hydrocarbon,and the content of non-hy-drocarbon was high.Gas parent material was typeⅡorganic matter that is the product from high thermal evolution stage.And at the same time,the gas origin was chaotic.The distribution range of ln(C1/C2)and ln(C2/C3)in gas obviouslyindicated that the gases in Changxing Formation and Feixianguan Formation were the products of secondary cracking ofoil in Yuanba Area.And the gases in the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic were the result of first cracking of kerogen.It is considered that the thermochemical sulfate reduction(TSR)happens in native reservoirs in Yuanba Area,which cau-ses high hydrogen sulfide content in Changxing Formation and Feixianguan Formation.The native reservoir in Tongnan-ba Area has no TSR,which is the reason the gas in Upper Permian and Lower Triassic excludes hydrogen sulfide.Keywords:carbon isotope;hydrogen sulfide;TSR;Yuanba Area;Tongnanba Area40 The Characteristics of Reef-flat Reservoirs in Lianglitage Formation of TazhongAreaKANG Jian-wei,LIN Xiao-bing,TIAN Jing-chun,CHEN Xiao-we (First Authors Address:Chengdu Institute of Geology andMineral Resources,Chengdu610082,Sichuan,China)Abstract:The reef-flat reservoirs in Lianglitage Formation of Tazhong Area were mainly developed on the margin conti-nental shelf,its domal reef and its inside beach and reef.Study of seismic section analysis Indicated that wave reflectionof the reef flat had obvious characteristics.The seismic reflection of was disorder like hilock,the swing and the continu-ity were feebleness.The cover of peak was uneven and the reflection on both of the limbs were terminated.Data of natu-ral gamma logging and time difference of sound wave were low in logging record.Comparing with the rock porosity andⅣ
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